Seizure as Presenting Symptom of Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in ChildrenRead the full article
Case Reports in Infectious Diseases publishes case reports and case series related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
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Disseminated Tuberculosis Mimicking as Crohn’s Disease in a Paediatric Patient
Tuberculosis is an important infectious disease for children worldwide. The clinical presentation of tuberculosis in children is diverse and, depending on the affected organs, it is often accompanied with nonspecific symptoms that can mimic other diseases. In this report, we present a case of disseminated tuberculosis in an 11-year-old boy with intestinal followed by pulmonary involvement. The diagnosis was delayed for several weeks due to the clinical picture which was mimicking Crohn’s disease, the known difficulties in diagnostic tests and the improvement on meropenem. This case demonstrates the importance of a detailed microscopic examination of gastrointestinal biopsies and the tuberculostatic effect of meropenem which physicians should be aware of.
Atraumatic Splenic Rupture in Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia
A previously fit 46-year-old male handyman presented to a rural hospital with a cough, fever, and epigastric pain without peritonism. The patient was admitted medically with symptoms and radiological appearances consistent with atypical community-acquired pneumonia. During the first 48 hours of admission, he suffered a significant haemodynamic deterioration and was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for vasoactive support. Following stabilisation, urgent abdominal CT imaging demonstrated splenic rupture with haematoma in the absence of historical trauma. Emergency splenectomy was performed; the histopathological examination was unremarkable. Investigations for the presenting complaint confirmed Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 pneumonia by urinary antigen testing. The patient was extubated on postoperative day 2 and stepped down from ICU to complete a 14-day course of azithromycin. Atraumatic splenic rupture is a rarely described clinical entity. The process can be subdivided into pathological and nonpathological (spontaneous) cases. Pathological atraumatic splenic rupture may occur in the context of wide-ranging aetiologies, including bacterial pneumonia; however, the association with Legionella pneumophila serotype 1 is exceptional, with this representing the eighth case in the medical literature.
Acute Hepatitis A and Hepatitis B Coinfection in a Young Female: A Case Report and Literature Review
Background. Hepatitis is one of the common infectious diseases that can infect patients in various forms. Based on their characteristics and clinical features, they can cause irreparable complications in patients. Coinfections and superinfections between its variant have been reported, but the coinfection of acute HAV and HBV is rarely reported. Case Presentation. In this case report, we presented a case with severe malaise, nausea, vomiting, generalized jaundice, and a history of recent tattooing and travel to the HAV endemic area. In our evaluation, she had a positive HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBs IgM, anti-HAV IgM, and negative result in HCV antibody, HIV antibody, and anti-HAV IgG. The coinfection of HAV/HBV was confirmed for her. Conclusion. Physicians should differentiate hepatitis A and hepatitis B superinfection or coinfection, based on history and laboratory testing, to prevent complications with appropriate treatment.
Coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and Cytomegalovirus in a Patient with Mild COVID-19
Persistent fever due to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a considerable issue for patients and physicians that requires a broad differential diagnosis and evaluation of complications. Coinfections with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and various respiratory viruses have also been reported. In severe cases of COVID-19, cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation or CMV coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 has been reported in association with critical illnesses and immunosuppressive therapy; however, in mild COVID-19 cases, CMV coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 has been reported only in severely immunocompromised patients, and its incidence and clinical importance remain unclear. Herein, we report a rare case of coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and CMV in a patient with mild COVID-19 and untreated diabetes mellitus, which led to persistent fever for approximately 4 weeks. CMV coinfection should be considered in patients with COVID-19 who exhibit persistent fever.
Infective Spondylitis with Epidural Abscess Formation Caused by Roseomonas mucosa: A Case Report and Literature Review
Roseomonas mucosa (R. mucosa) is a pink-pigmented, aerobic, nonfermentative, slow-growing Gram-negative coccus typically isolated from the natural environment, human skin, and hospital environment. This pathogen, in most circumstances, leads to infections in immunocompromised hosts, but it may sometimes invade immunocompetent individuals. Bacteraemia is the most common form of infection caused by R. mucosa. In contrast, only two case reports have described R. mucosa-related epidural abscess formation and infective spondylitis. In this case report, we shared the history and treatment experience of a 76-year-old female who was diagnosed with infective spondylitis and epidural abscess caused by R. mucosa. She received a local transdermal injection into the lower back to relieve her back pain two months before symptom onset, which was considered to be associated with this infection episode. After admission to the hospital, neurosurgeons performed emergent decompression and debridement. She was treated with intravenous ceftriaxone for four weeks, followed by oral ciprofloxacin for another eight weeks. The patient recovered well without any sequelae and had no relapse of infection at least six months after the end of treatment. In addition to the case report, we reviewed the literature for reported cases caused by R. mucosa. Our experience suggests that clinicians should include R. mucosa as one of the possible healthcare-associated pathogens among individuals who have undergone transdermal procedures. We believe that this article will help clinicians better recognize R. mucosa infection.
An Adult Case of Adenovirus-Associated Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an autoimmune neurological disease that predominately affects pediatric population. Only a single fatal adult case of adenovirus-associated ADEM has previously been published by Qamar et al. in 2021. Here, we present an adult case of adenovirus-associated ADEM, which was diagnosed early in her clinical course. The patient was treated with the prompt initiation of steroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and plasmapheresis (PLEX), and the patient recovered fully. This case highlights the importance of early accurate diagnosis for other clinicians to treat adenovirus-associated ADEM in a timely fashion to prevent a potentially fatal outcome.