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Inflammatory Myo-Fibroblastic Tumor of the Gallbladder with Multivisceral Involvement: Successful Treatment with Radical SurgeryRead the full article
Case Reports in Hepatology publishes case reports and case series related to the management of disorders affecting the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas.
Case Reports in Hepatology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Fulminant Neonatal Liver Failure in MPV 17-Related Mitochondrial DNA Depletion Syndrome
Mitochondrial depletion syndromes are well established causes of liver failure in infants. Hepatocerebral variant related to MPV17 gene defect is characterized by infantile onset of progressive liver failure, developmental delay, neurological manifestations, lactic acidosis, hypoglycemia, and mtDNA depletion in liver tissue. We report a hepatocerebral variant of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome in a neonate who presented with septic shock picture, hypoglycemia, jaundice, hypotonia, and rotatory nystagmus. Family history was significant for consanguinity and a brother who died at the age of 4 months. Investigations showed mild liver function derangement contrasting with severe coagulopathy, hyperlactatemia, and generalized aminoaciduria. The brain MRI was normal. Next generation sequencing (NGS) panel identified a MPV17 gene missense homozygous pathogenic variant. The infant expired at the age of 2 weeks with refractory ascites. This case illustrates a challenging diagnosis causing liver failure and death in neonatal period. Genetic testing of mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromes should be a part of liver failure workup in addition to other treatable disorders presenting with encephalo-hepatopathy in infancy.
Plasmapheresis for Fulminant Wilson’s Disease Improves Mental Status and Coagulopathy
Wilson’s disease is a rare genetic condition that affects copper metabolism, resulting in tissue copper accumulation and resultant organ damage. We report a case of a young woman who presents with Wilson’s disease complicated by hemolysis, impaired hepatic function, coagulopathy, and acute kidney injury. She was treated with plasmapheresis as a bridge to a liver transplant. Her mental state, renal function, and bilirubin level improved after starting plasmapheresis. She successfully underwent a liver transplant and remained stable post-liver transplant. We share our experience on the use of plasmapheresis in treating Wilson’s disease.
Acquired Fanconi Syndrome from Tenofovir Treatment in a Patient with Hepatitis B
Fanconi syndrome is a rare disease of generalized proximal tubule dysfunction which can be acquired secondary to certain medications, including tenofovir, a commonly used hepatitis B treatment. Signs and symptoms of ensuing renal wasting can be severe but vague, leading to potentially avoidable invasive investigations and delays in diagnosis. We present a case of a 62-year-old female with chronic hepatitis B on tenofovir treatment who was found to have subacute weakness, anorexia, and weight loss. She underwent extensive investigations including computed tomography (CT) imaging, bronchoscopy, upper and lower endoscopy, and psychiatric evaluation. Finally, persistent electrolyte derangements led to urine studies, which demonstrated acquired Fanconi syndrome secondary to tenofovir. After discontinuing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and starting tenofovir alafenamide, her symptoms resolved and her renal function recovered. This case illustrates the importance of maintaining clinical suspicion for tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome, given the common use of tenofovir as first-line hepatitis B treatment and the availability of less nephrotoxic alternatives.
A Challenging Case of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy in a Postliver Retransplant Patient with Thrombosed Portal Vein: A Shunt for a Shunt
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent and serious complication of chronic liver disease. The mechanism of hepatic encephalopathy is not entirely clear. Hepatic encephalopathy is defined as brain dysfunction caused by liver insufficiency and/or portal-systemic blood shunting. It manifests as a wide spectrum of neurological or psychiatric abnormalities, ranging from subclinical alterations, detectable only by neuropsychological or neurophysiological assessment, to coma. Liver transplant (LT) is the definitive treatment for refractory hepatic encephalopathy. In this case, we present a challenging case of refractory hepatic encephalopathy in a postliver transplant patient with portal vein thrombosis and a splenorenal shunt treated with a novel technique to address his complex anatomy.
Xanthogranulomatous Cholecystitis Mimicking Carcinoma Gallbladder
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis (XGC) is a rare benign chronic inflammatory disease of the gallbladder that often presents as cholecystitis and can mimic gallbladder carcinoma. Distinguishing XGC from gallbladder cancer preoperatively is challenging. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented with features of carcinoma gallbladder in the CECT abdomen and MRCP. Intraoperatively, there was a mass in the gallbladder and extension into the adjacent structures with involvement of the hepatic artery, 1st part of the duodenum, portal vein, and hepatic flexure of the colon, and thus a palliative cholecystectomy was done. The histopathological report came out as XCG. The case aims to outline the clinical presentation of XGC and differentiate it from carcinoma gallbladder.
De Novo Autoimmune Hepatitis after COVID-19 Infection in an Unvaccinated Patient
Liver test abnormalities have been described during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV)-2 infection causing coronavirus disease 2019. Most of them consist of elevation of the aminotransferases that resolve once the infection subsides. There are several reports of autoimmune hepatitis developing after vaccination against COVID-19 and one case of autoimmune hepatitis following COVID-19 infection. We present a patient that was not vaccinated against COVID-19 and developed resistant de novo autoimmune hepatitis following COVID-19 infection requiring aggressive immunosuppression.
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