A Prenatal Presentation of CDK13-Related Disorder with a Novel Pathogenic VariantRead the full article
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45, X/ 46, X, psu idic (Y) (q11.2) Mosaicism in a Primary Amenorrhea Girl with Swyer Syndrome
The female characters with a 46, XY karyotype, historically termed Swyer syndrome, are commonly divided into complete and partial gonadal dysgenesis. The former is completely made up of the 46, XY chromosome, while the latter results from 45, X/46, XY mosaicism. Both of them are sex chromosome disorders and are typically characterized by delayed puberty and primary amenorrhea due to disruption of the embryonic gonads into testes. In this report, we described a young female with mos 45, X /46, X, psu idic (Y) (q11.2)  by karyotyping. Further copy number variation sequencing (CNV-seq) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) verified her chromosome alteration. The following gonadectomy and hormone replacement therapy were carried out, and the menstrual cycle recovered along with the development of bilateral breasts and uteruses. Herein, we aim to provide clinical management strategies for the patient with Swyer syndrome in clinical practice.
Prenatal Lethal Diagnosis of 8p23.1 Duplication Syndrome Associated with Omphalocele and Encephalocele
Despite increased prenatal and postnatal use of array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH), isolated 8p23.1 duplication remains rare and has been associated with a widely variable phenotype. Here, we report an isolated 8p23.1 duplication in a fetus with an omphalocele and encephalocele that were incompatible with life. Prenatal aCGH demonstrated a 3.75 Mb de novo duplication of 8p23.1. This region encompassed 54 genes, 21 of which are described in OMIM, including SOX7 and GATA4. The summarized case demonstrates phenotypic features not previously described in 8p23.1 duplication syndrome and is reported in order to enhance understanding of the phenotypic variation.
4q25 Microdeletion with Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome and Developmental Delay
We encountered a case with congenital iris coloboma, omphalocele, and developmental delay with a 2.5 Mb deletion on chromosome 4q25 encompassing PITX2, leading to Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome (ARS), NEUROG2, and ANK2. ARS is characterized by the aplasia of the anterior eye, odontogenesis, and abdominal wall aplasia. In our case, iris coloboma and omphalocele were thought to be caused by PITX2 haploinsufficiency. However, these symptoms are nonspecific, and clinical symptoms alone can make it difficult to make a correct diagnosis. In addition, the genes responsible for developmental delay, among others, are not well understood. Developmental delay, in this case, might be caused due to NEUROG2 haploinsufficiency. In spite of the partial deletion of ANK2, the causative gene of long QT syndrome type 4, the electrocardiogram was normal. Genetic testing can lead to a correct diagnosis, and it may be effective in detecting complications.
Manifestations of Intellectual Disability, Dystonia, and Parkinson’s Disease in an Adult Patient with ARX Gene Mutation c.558_560dup p.(Pro187dup)
We describe a 38-year-old male patient with intellectual disability and progressive motor symptoms who lacked an etiological diagnosis for many years. Finally, clinical exome sequencing showed a likely pathogenic variant of the ARX gene suggesting Partington syndrome. His main symptoms were mild intellectual disability, severe kinetic apraxia, resting and action tremor, dysarthria, tonic pupils, constant dystonia of one upper limb, and focal dystonia in different parts of the body, axial rigidity, spasticity, epilepsy, and poor sleep. Another likely pathogenic gene variant was observed in the PKP2 gene and is in accordance with the observed early cardiomyopathy. Single-photon emission computed tomography imaging of dopamine transporters showed a reduced signal in the basal ganglia consistent with Parkinson’s disease. Therapies with a variable number of drugs, including antiparkinsonian medications, have yielded poor responses. Our case report extends the picture of the adult phenotype of Partington syndrome.
A Case of Congenital Hypotonia and Developmental Delay in an Individual with a De Novo Variant Outside of the Canonical HX-Motif of ATN1
We present a case of a 4-year-old female with a de novo heterozygous variant in the ATN1 gene. The whole exome sequencing was performed on the patient and her parents, and a likely pathogenic, de novo variant was identified in exon 5 of the ATN1 gene. There are two well-documented conditions associated with the ATN1 gene: congenital hypotonia, epilepsy, developmental delay, and digital anomalies (CHEDDA) syndrome and dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). Unlike DRPLA which is caused by an expanded trinucleotide repeat, CHEDDA syndrome is caused by variants in the histidine-rich (HX) motif at exon 7 of ATN1 similar to the de novo variant found in exon 5 of the presented individual. CHEDDA syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder previously documented in over 17 unrelated individuals. Compared to other documented CHEDDA syndrome cases, this individual shares similarities in respect to hypotonia, hearing impairment, impaired gross and fine motor ability, gastrointestinal abnormalities, hyperextensible joints, and frontal bossing. However, the individual presented here has only a moderate developmental delay and has acquired more developmental milestones such as higher-level language skills and more developed fine motor skills, than previously described individuals. The authors of this paper believe the patient’s milder phenotype may be due to the variant’s location outside of the canonic HX motif.
The Benefits of Early versus Late Therapeutic Intervention in Fabry Disease
Background. Fabry disease (FD) is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by pathogenic variants of the GLA gene. Heterozygous female patients may show much more variability in clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to full-blown disease. Because of this heterogeneous clinical picture in women, the diagnosis of FD has typically been delayed for more than a decade, and the optimal time to initiate treatment remains controversial. Case Presentation. Here, we present two unrelated female patients diagnosed with FD harbouring the same pathogenic GLA variant. We discuss the implications of initiating specific therapy at different stages of the disease, with and without organ involvement (early versus late therapeutic intervention). Conclusions. These clinical cases suggest that initiating specific treatment at an earlier age in women with FD may prevent organ involvement and associated clinical events.