The Use of Membranes (ST-100, oXiris, and M60) for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy in a Child with SepsisRead the full article
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A Case Series of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients
Diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients are extremely challenging. These patients can have atypical clinical courses, and there is a paucity of data regarding clinical features, diagnostic findings, and the safety and efficacy of available therapeutic agents used to treat COVID-19 in these patients. In this case series, we report atypical COVID-19 presentations in 4 immunocompromised pediatric patients who were admitted with acute respiratory failure after an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 a few weeks earlier. All patients included in this cohort showed persistent worsening respiratory symptoms for several weeks before hospital presentation. While they manifested common COVID-19 sequelae, they also had rare COVID-19-related pathognomonic and radiographic features developed along their hospital course. Multiple therapeutic agents were used in their COVID-19 management, including corticosteroids, remdesivir, and monoclonal antibodies. All three patients who have received concurrent therapy with remdesivir, hydrocortisone, and monoclonal antibodies survived, and only one patient died as a direct complication of COVID-19 ARDS with secondary pulmonary mucormycosis. Our outcomes suggest the potential benefit of remdesivir use in combination with hydrocortisone and monoclonal antibodies in the management of severe COVID-19 ARDS in this group, as well as the importance of close surveillance and early administration of broad empirical antimicrobial and antifungal coverage if clinically indicated in this high-risk population.
Atrio-Esophageal Fistula: A Rare Entity Complicating a Common Procedure
A 66-year-old female with a history of radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation presented with hematemesis and fever. A CT chest revealed an atrio-esophageal fistula (AEF) and a CT head showed bilateral septic emboli. Blood cultures were positive for Streptococcus sanguinis. She underwent primary repair of the atrial defect on cardiopulmonary bypass where a large atrial vegetation was retrieved, followed by a right thoracotomy with the closure of the esophageal defect the next day. She was discharged to a rehabilitation facility after 18 days of hospital stay with a 6 weeks antibiotics plan. The incidence of AEF following ablation procedures has been estimated at 0.01 to 0.04%, and the pathogenesis is linked to direct tissue and vagus nerve injury. The most common clinical findings are fever and neurologic deficits. CT chest is the best diagnostic modality. CT head might demonstrate embolic phenomena and TTE can show vegetation. Early surgical intervention, even in an unstable patient, is paramount for survival.
Spontaneous Hepatic Rupture in a Pregnant Woman with Preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome
Spontaneous hepatic rupture is a rare complication associated with preeclampsia and is characterized by hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and a low platelet count (HELLP syndrome), with a nonspecific clinical presentation and high mortality rate. We present the case of a 34-year-old primigravida woman in whom spontaneous hepatic rupture associated with HELLP syndrome was accidentally detected during cesarean delivery. The patient was successfully managed with liver packing and transcatheter arterial embolization, followed by plasmapheresis. Spontaneous hepatic rupture should be considered in any HELLP syndrome patient presenting with epigastric or right upper quadrant pain and early signs of hemodynamic instability. A multimodal approach can help achieve good clinical outcomes in patients with this rare presentation.
Full-Term Delivery and Complete Lung Recovery following VV ECMO Support Midpregnancy in a Patient with COVID-19 ARDS
Pregnant women are especially vulnerable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We present a twin pregnancy case with acute respiratory distress syndrome following COVID-19 infection at 19 weeks. The patient’s ARDS was successfully managed with veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV ECMO). She recovered completely and delivered healthy twins.
Use of Continuous Intravenous Anakinra Infusion in Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an emergency pandemic with a high mortality rate worldwide. One of its complications in children is developing multisystemic inflammatory syndrome related to cytokine storm. Anakinra is a recombinant human interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist used to suppress the exaggerated inflammatory response in such conditions, and it is potentially lifesaving in a cytokine storm. We present the case of a patient with critical COVID-19 associated with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) successfully treated with anakinra intravenous (IV) infusion.
Primary MRSA Myositis Mimicking Septic Arthritis
As the incidence of bacterial myositis and pyomyositis in the United States is rising, we aim to highlight the presentation of bacterial myositis which is known as a great imitator in tropical regions. This is a case report of a 61-year-old female patient with poorly controlled diabetes who presented initially with lateral hip pain and tenderness. This was initially believed to be septic arthritis and warranted arthrocentesis. What makes this case interesting is that what was believed to be a primary community-acquired MRSA myositis, which progressed to a life-threatening septic shock, happened in a nontropical area (Northeastern USA) and in a patient with no underlying recent muscle injury. This case serves to remind clinicians that infectious myositis is gaining more incidence in nontropical regions and can masquerade as septic arthritis, requiring a high index of suspicion. Normal muscle enzymes like CK and aldolase do not rule out myositis.