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Case Reports in Cardiology publishes case reports and case series related to hypertension, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, valvular heart disease, vascular disease, congenital heart disease, and cardiomyopathy.
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The Heart Block Hat-Trick: A Case of Alternating First-, Second-, and Third-Degree Heart Blocks
Idiopathic third-degree atrioventricular (AV) block in a relatively young patient is an uncommon phenomenon. Even more rare is when the third-degree heart block is alternating with the first- and second-degree AV blocks. In this case, we present a 39-year-old man with varying degrees of AV block, alternating the third-degree, second-degree, and first-degree AV blocks. The patient underwent an extensive workup for underlying etiologies, and results were inconclusive. A pacemaker was implanted and set for physiologic pacing via left bundle branch area pacing (LBBAP). This case will discuss potential genetic abnormalities associated with AV block and highlight LBBAP as an emerging technique for physiologic pacing.
Non-Iatrogenic Localized-Reentrant Figure of Eight Atrial Tachycardias in the Superior Vena Cava
Introduction. The superior vena cava (SVC) is an important non-pulmonary venous foci of atrial fibrillation (AF) and is known as the arrhythmogenic site of scar-related atrial tachycardia (AT). Scar-related ATs may occur after catheter ablation and open heart surgery; however, idiopathic AT rarely occurs. Case Presentation. A 77-year-old male with terminal diabetic nephropathy complained of dialysis-induced hypotension due to AF and was admitted to our hospital for catheter ablation. Here, we report a case of non-iatrogenic localized-reentrant figure of eight AT in the SVC. Conclusion. SVC has the arrhythmogenic potential for re-entrant tachycardia, and the development of mapping technology can reveal arrhythmogenic mechanisms.
A Rare Coexistence of Simultaneous Cardio-Cerebral Infarction
Background. Contemporaneous acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and acute ischemic stroke (AIS), termed cardio-cerebral infarction (CCI), is a rare medical emergency. The effectual management of this situation is exigent since early management of one condition will inevitably delay the other. Case Presentation. A 60-year-old woman presented to our hospital with concurrent AMI of the inferior left ventricular wall, complicated by cardiogenic shock and transient complete heart block, and AIS of more than 4.5 hour duration. The cerebral computerized tomography angiography revealed a right-sided terminal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion, and the coronary angiogram depicted double vessel disease with a culprit lesion in the right coronary artery (RCA). The patient underwent mechanical thrombectomy for the ICA occlusion by an interventional neuroradiologist followed by the primary percutaneous coronary intervention of the culprit RCA by the interventional cardiologists in the same setting. Conclusion. A patient with concurrent AMI and AIS is a challenging situation to treat in the emergency department, and the treatment must be individualized for each patient.
Case Report: Rare Case of Staphylococcus pasteuri Endocarditis
A 45-year-old woman was admitted with severe pain in the right leg and dyspnea. Her medical history included previous Staphylococcus aureus endocarditis, biological aortic valve replacement, and intravenous drug abuse. She was febrile but did not have any focal signs of infection. Blood tests showed raised infectious markers and troponin levels. Electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm without signs of ischemia. Ultrasound revealed thrombosis of the right popliteal artery. The leg was not critically ischemic, and therefore, treatment with dalteparin was chosen. Transesophageal echocardiography showed an excrescence on the biological aortic valve. Empiric treatment for endocarditis was started with intravenous vancomycin, gentamicin, and oral rifampicin. Blood cultures subsequently grew Staphylococcus pasteuri. On day 2, treatment was changed to intravenous cloxacillin. Due to the comorbidity, the patient was not a candidate for the surgical treatment. On day 10, the patient developed moderate expressive aphasia and weakness in the right upper limb. Magnetic resonance imaging showed micro-embolic lesions scattered across both hemispheres of the brain. Treatment was changed from cloxacillin to cefuroxime. On day 42, infectious markers were normal, and echocardiography showed regression of the excrescence. Antibiotic treatment was stopped. Follow-up on day 52 did not show any signs of active infection. However, on day 143, the patient was readmitted with cardiogenic shock due to aortic root fistulation to the left atrium. She quickly deteriorated and died.
The Role of RYR2 in Atrial Fibrillation
Background. Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia in elderly patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. The pathogenesis of AF is complex and based on multiple genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies identified several loci in AF patients, indicating the complex genetic architecture of this disease. In rare cases, familial forms of AF have been described. Today, pathogenic variants in at least 11 different genes are associated with monogenic AF. Case presentation. The 37-year-old male patient presented to our emergency department with AF. At the age of 35, he had already been diagnosed with paroxysmal AF. Additionally, his 34-year-old brother had also been diagnosed with AF as well as nonobstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Moreover, the patient’s father was diagnosed with AF in his twenties. Transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac MRI revealed a reduced systolic left ventricular ejection without any signs of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Genetic testing identified the heterozygous missense variants c.3371C > T, p.(Pro1124Leu) in RYR2 (NM_001035.3) and c.2524C > A, p.(Pro842Thr) in HCN4 (NM_005477.3) in the patient’s and his brother’s DNA. Discussion. This case of familial AF helps to strengthen the role of RYR2 as a disease gene in the context of AF. Although the variant in RYR2 needs to be classified formally as variant of unknown significance, we regard it as probably disease-causing due to the previously published data. As RYR2 has already been identified as a possible target for prevention and therapy of AF, the knowledge of variants in RYR2 might become even more crucial for individual molecular therapies in the future.
Spontaneous Closure of a Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Pseudoaneurysm Embedded in a Mediastinal Hematoma
Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) pseudoaneurysms are a rare but often unrecognized clinical entity. They are prone to rupture and hemodynamic compromise and should therefore be on the differential in the appropriate patient. We present a case of a gentleman with a recent CABG surgery who presented with acute onset dyspnea and a large pleural effusion. Imaging revealed a saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm embedded in a mediastinal hematoma. Four weeks later, prior to planned stenting, the pseudoaneurysm had spontaneously closed. This case highlights an unusual acute presentation of a CABG pseudoaneurysm and a multidisciplinary approach to its management.