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Case Reports in Anesthesiology publishes case reports and case series related to anesthetic administration and efficacy, preoperative and postoperative considerations, perioperative care, critical care etc.
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Remimazolam Anesthesia for Thyroid Surgery
Background. Critical upper airway obstruction, hematoma formation, and recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy have been reported as postoperative complications of thyroid surgery. Although remimazolam may reduce the risk of these complications, the efficacy of flumazenil with remimazolam has not been reported. We present the successful anesthesia management of thyroid surgery using remimazolam and flumazenil. Case Presentation. A 72-year-old woman was diagnosed with a goiter and scheduled for a partial thyroidectomy under general anesthesia. We used remimazolam for induction and maintenance using a neural integrity monitor, electromyogram, and endotracheal tube under the bispectral index monitor. At the end of the surgery, spontaneous respiration was confirmed after the intravenous administration of sugammadex, and the patient was extubated under mild sedation. In the operating room, we administered flumazenil intravenously to confirm recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and active postoperative hemorrhage. The patient was confirmed to have no recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy under full wakefulness but developed active postoperative hemorrhage with normal blood pressure. The patient required reoperation and was reintubated under intravenous administration of propofol. The anesthesia was maintained using 5% of desflurane, and the patient was extubated without any postoperative problems. The anesthesia was then terminated. The patient had no recall of the procedure. Conclusion. Maintenance of general anesthesia using remimazolam allowed the use of a neurostimulator with minimal muscle-relaxant effects, and extubation under sedation reduced the risk of abrupt and unexpected changes in blood pressure, body movement, and coughing. Furthermore, after extubation, the patient was rendered fully awake using flumazenil to confirm the presence of recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy and active postoperative hemorrhage. In addition, the patient had no memory of the reoperation, suggesting that the anterograde amnesic effect of remimazolam had a favorable psychological outcome associated with the reoperation. We safely managed thyroid surgery using remimazolam and flumazenil.
Effect of Arginine Vasopressin on Intraoperative Hypotension Caused by Oral Administration of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid
5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) is used for the photodynamic diagnosis of malignant tumors and has been effectively utilized to improve the complete resection rate and reduce the risk of tumor recurrence. However, intraoperative hypotension is a common adverse effect of oral 5-ALA, and it occasionally progresses to severe prolonged hypotension requiring high-dose catecholamine administration. We report a case of intraoperative hypotension due to oral 5-ALA in which arginine vasopressin (AVP) administration was effective for increasing the blood pressure. A 77-year-old man scheduled for a craniotomy for glioma was administered 5-ALA orally before surgery. After the induction of anesthesia, his blood pressure decreased substantially. Although we administered various vasopressor agents, hypotension was prolonged. However, after starting a continuous administration of AVP, the systolic blood pressure increased, and the hemodynamic parameters remained stable during the remainder of the operation. 5-ALA administration may lower blood pressure by inducing nitric oxide production, and AVP inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase messenger RNA expression and interleukin-1β-stimulated nitric oxide production. In light of these mechanisms, AVP may be a reasonable treatment agent for hypotension induced by 5-ALA.
Perioperative Management of a Patient with Hemophilia C and Allergy to Fresh Frozen Plasma
Hemophilia C is a rare bleeding disorder characterized by a deficiency in clotting factor XI (fXI) and has no standard of care for preoperative optimization before cardiac surgery. Normalization of fXI levels in patients with hemophilia C can be achieved with fresh frozen plasma (FFP), which sometimes results in allergic reactions. We present a case of a patient with hemophilia C requiring coronary artery bypass grafting surgery who developed an allergic reaction to FFP. Our report underscores the balance between thrombosis and bleeding risks when devising a perioperative plan for patients with hemophilia C.
Triple Threat: Significant Concomitant Aortic Stenosis, Mitral Stenosis, and Systolic Anterior Motion of the Mitral Valve Causing Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Cardiac Surgical Patients
Systolic anterior motion (SAM) describes a pathologic condition of the mitral valve in which the anterior leaflet is displaced anteriorly, resulting in a narrowed left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT). The implications of SAM may range in severity from clinically insignificant disease to severe LVOT obstruction resulting in hemodynamic collapse. While SAM is typically observed in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or following mitral valve repair, it may be seen in any setting in which the anatomy and function of the left ventricle has been altered. Here we discuss two patients who presented for aortic and mitral valve replacements for concomitant aortic and mitral stenosis. These cases were further complicated by the preoperative diagnosis of SAM in addition to the preexisting valvular lesions, further increasing the risk of sudden hemodynamic collapse and cardiac arrest.
Peripheral Nerve Stimulation for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain: A Case Series
This case series aims to highlight the efficacy of peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) in the treatment of phantom limb pain, as well as provide an alternative method for the treatment of this pain syndrome. In this report, we describe three amputee patients with severe phantom limb pain who obtained substantial analgesia and improvement in physical functionality after implantation of a temporary PNS device. Future studies should assess predictors of successful response or poor response to PNS therapy, such as mental health, environmental stressors, coping skills, and procedural factors. These factors may facilitate an individualized approach for each patient to ensure appropriate candidacy for PNS and better prognosis. Considering that patients in our cohort did not achieve long-lasting benefit after removal of temporary PNS, future research should assess if patients with phantom limb pain would benefit from permanent PNS, rather than temporary PNS.
Anesthesia Management of a Liver Transplant Recipient with Remimazolam
Background. Intraoperative anesthetic requirements might be altered due to the modulated metabolic function in living donor liver transplant recipients. Remimazolam may provide appropriate anesthesia in patients with cirrhosis. However, the efficacy and safety of remimazolam in liver transplant recipients have not been reported. We present the successful anesthesia management of a liver transplant recipient using remimazolam. Case Presentation. A 54-year-old woman who was diagnosed with Child-Pugh C cirrhosis of unknown etiology was scheduled for living donor liver transplantation. Remimazolam was used for anesthesia management under electroencephalogram monitoring, including bispectral index (BIS) and patient state index (PSI) values. Despite the prolonged surgical time (1,037 min) and massive blood loss (22,500 mL), BIS and PSI values were maintained within acceptable ranges intraoperatively. There was no intraoperative awareness/recall or adverse events associated with remimazolam administered perioperatively. Conclusions. We safely managed general anesthesia for living donor liver transplantation with remimazolam using electroencephalogram monitoring.