Post-COVID-19 Vaccination CNS Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings: A Systematic ReviewRead the full article
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology publishes original research articles and review articles related to infectious diseases of bacterial, viral and parasitic origin.
Chief Editor, Professor Tingtao Chen is currently based at Nanchang University, China. His research focuses on microbial ecology, and effects of natural microorganisms and engineered bacteria on host health.
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Comparative Diagnostic of Cervical Tuberculous Lymphadenitis: PCR is a Fast, Efficient, and Improved Diagnostic Approach
Background and Objectives. Tuberculosis has become a major health problem in India, and the incidence of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) has increased in parallel with the increase in the incidence of mycobacterial infection worldwide. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to correlate the diagnostic efficacy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with various diagnostic techniques in clinically suspected cases of TBLN. Methods. The study included 100 clinically suspected cases of TBLN. Fine needle aspirate (FNA) samples were processed for cytology staining and cultured on LJ & BACTEC 12B media. The biochemical tests were performed to identify the isolates at the species level. Additionally, for PCR, DNA was extracted and used for the diagnosis and identification of mycobacterial species. Results. Patients ranged from 2 to 45 years with a mean age of 24.96 ± 9.10 years. Out of 100 patients, 73% had clinical symptoms of weight loss, followed by fever (72%), anorexia (66%), and night sweats (58%). 24% of patients were found to be smear-positive after Ziehl–Neelsen (ZN) staining and statistically highly significant with PCR. On LJ medium 34% and on BACTEC radiometric 45% of samples were smearing positive. Overall, 48% of cases were PCR-positive for TBLN. When compared with culture, the sensitivity and specificity of PCR were 93.75% and 100%, respectively, which are higher than cytology. The true positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) were 83.3% and 61.5%, respectively. Conclusion. This study suggests that PCR is a rapid, sensitive, and specific tool for correct diagnosis of TBLN cases as compared to staining and culture which lead to the early and proper management of mycobacterial diseases.
Impact of Negative Fluid Balance on Mortality and Outcome of Patients with Confirmed COVID-19
Purpose. Maintaining the proper fluid balance is a fundamental step in the management of hospitalized patients. The current study evaluated the impact of negative fluid balance on outcomes of patients with confirmed COVID-19. Methods. We considered the negative fluid balance as a higher output fluid compared to the input fluid. The fluid balance was categorized into four groups (group 4: −850 to −500 ml/day; group 3: −499 to −200 ml/day, group 2: −199 to 0 ml/day, and group 1 : 1 to 1000 ml/day) and included ordinally in the model. The outcomes were all-cause mortality, length of hospitalization, and improvement in oxygen saturation. Results. The fluid balance differed significantly among nonsurvivors and survivors (MD: −317.93, 95% CI: −410.21, −225.69, and ). After adjusting for potential confounders, there was a significantly lower frequency of mortality in patients with negative fluid balance compared to the controls (aRR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.57, 0.84, and ). Similarly, the length of hospitalization was significantly shorter in the negative fluid balance group in comparison to the control group (aMD: −1.01, 95% CI: −1.74, −0.28, and ). Conclusion. We determined that the negative fluid balance was associated with favorable outcomes in COVID-19 patients. The negative fluid balance was associated with the reduced mortality rate and length of hospitalization as well as improvement in oxygen saturation. Moreover, the NT-proBNP >781 pg/mL and fluid balance >−430 mL might be the predictors for positive fluid balance and mortality, respectively.
Analyzing Trends in Demographic, Laboratory, Imaging, and Clinical Outcomes of ICU-Hospitalized COVID-19 Patients
Background. COVID-19 has led to significant hospitalization and intensive care unit admission rates. The demographic parameters of COVID-19 patients, such as age, underlying illnesses, and clinical symptoms, substantially influence the incidence and mortality of these individuals. The current study examined the clinical and demographic characteristics of COVID-19 intensive care unit (ICU) patients in Yazd, Iran. Methods. The descriptive-analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on ICU patients with a positive RT-PCR test for coronavirus, admitted to the ICU in Yazd province, Iran, over 18 months. To this end, demographic, clinical, laboratory, and imaging data were collected. Moreover, patients were divided into good and worse clinical outcome groups based on their clinical outcomes. Subsequently, data analysis was performed at a 95% confidence interval (CI) using SPSS 26 software. Results. 391 patients with positive PCR were analyzed. The average age of the patients in the study was 63.59 ± 17.76, where 57.3% were male. On the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan, the mean lung involvement score was 14.03 ± 6.04, where alveolar consolidation (34%) and ground-glass opacity (25.6%) were the most prevalent type of lung involvement. The most common underlying illnesses in the study participants were hypertension (HTN) (41.4%), diabetes mellitus (DM) (39.9%), ischemic heart disease (IHD) (21%), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) (20.7%). In hospitalized patients, the rates of endotracheal intubation and mortality were 38.9% and 38.1%, respectively. Age, DM, HTN, dyslipidemia, CKD, cerebral vascular accident (CVA), cerebral hemorrhage, and cancer were reported to be significantly different between these two groups of patients, indicating an increase in the rate of intubation and mortality among these patients. Furthermore, the multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that DM, HTN, CKD, CVA, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), the percentage of lung involvement, and initial O2 saturation significantly increase the mortality of ICU patients. Conclusion. Several features of COVID-19 patients influence the mortality in these individuals. According to the findings, early detection of this disease in people at high risk of death can prevent its progression and lower mortality rates.
A Community-Level Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice about Dengue Fever and the Identification of Mosquito Breeding Containers in Dire Dawa City of Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Lately, dengue fever (DF) is an emerging viral disease, one of the top 10 threats to global health, causing 24 million–130 million symptomatic cases and 10,000–50,000 deaths yearly. DF threat has expanded beyond traditional areas of endemicity, with over 50% of the world population now estimated to live in areas at risk of dengue virus (DV) transmission. Hence, the current study aimed to assess the community’s knowledge, attitude, and practice about DF transmission and its prevention and to identify mosquito breeding containers in Dire Dawa City, Ethiopia. Methods. A household-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to September 2022. A semistructured questionnaire was used to collect data. Immature stages of mosquitoes were collected from human habitations to identify their breeding containers. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. A value of <0.05 was used to declare a significant association between variables at a 95% level of confidence. Results. About 95.1% of respondents had information about DF, where the majority (58.0%) heard from relatives, friends, and families and 43.3% from health professionals. Only 17.9% knew DF was caused by viruses. Around 83%, 79%, and 50.8% of respondents knew that fever, headache, and back pain are the sign and symptoms of DF, respectively. Sadly, only 4.2% knew that DF vectors bite during day time and 10.5% of respondents did not know DF transmission season. The majority (80.5%) of respondents knew that DF is a preventable disease. Totally, 6,853 water-holding containers were identified, out of this 77% were jerrycans and 14.1% were barreled. Out of the identified water-holding containers, 7.73% were positive for mosquito larvae/pupae. House index (HI), container index (CI), and Breteau index (BI) were 19.5, 8.38, and 45.14, respectively. Conclusion. The majority of the community members has no awareness of the DF vectors, time of bites, pick transmission season, and their protection mechanisms. The habit to store water in and around habitation was prevalent. Hence, programmed and institutionalized awareness is mandatory for the control and prevention of DF and its vectors and for breaking the transmission cycle in Dire Dawa communities.
Diagnosis of Acute Dengue Virus Infection Using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and Real-Time PCR
Dengue fever is a viral infection caused by the dengue virus and is a growing concern for public health worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. This study aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a commercially available NS1 ELISA kit for dengue fever in Pakistan using multiplex qRT-PCR as the gold standard. The study recruited 1236 suspected cases of dengue fever admitted to public sector hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Of the suspected cases, 610 (49.3%) were confirmed positive for DENV infection through qRT-PCR, with all four serotypes detected. DENV-2 was the most prevalent serotype, detected in 95.7% of cases. The NS1 ELISA kit detected 71.1% of the positive cases. However, the diagnostic accuracy of the NS1 ELISA kit was found to be only 64.89%. Of the 610 confirmed cases, 68% were male and 32% were female, with a median age of 30 years. Dengue fever was diagnosed in 91.8% of cases, while 8.2% were diagnosed with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). DHF patients had a higher prevalence of abdominal pain, hemorrhagic manifestations, and thrombocytopenia. The cocirculation of all four DENV serotypes in Lahore is concerning and could lead to more severe forms of the disease, such as DHF or dengue shock syndrome, in the future. The study highlights the low diagnostic accuracy of commercially available NS1 ELISA kits and emphasizes the importance of using molecular methods to confirm acute dengue infections. Given the increasing prevalence of dengue fever in developing countries like Pakistan, more accurate and reliable diagnostic tools are needed for effective disease management and control.
The Detection of Fosfomycin-Modifying Enzymes (fos) in Uropathogenic Enterobacterale, Azerbaijan, Iran
Enterobacteriaceae is the most common agent of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Multidrug resistant (MDR) and XDR (extensively drug-resistant) Enterobacteriaceae in UTIs have increased in the world. The present study aimed to study the fosfomycin resistance frequency and the fosfomycin resistance genes among Enterobacteriaceae isolated from UTIs. The urine was collected and cultured in the standard protocol. To determine the susceptibility testing to fosfomycin in 211 isolates, agar dilution and disk agar diffusion methods were used. MDR was nonsusceptibility to at least one agent in three or more antimicrobial categories. The fosfomycin resistance genes were also evaluated by PCR. The frequency of resistance to fosfomycin was in 14 (6.6%) and 15 (7.1%) isolates by the disk agar diffusion and MIC assays, respectively. However, the MIC50 and MIC90 existed at 8 μg/mL and 16 μg/mL, respectively. The MDR was found in 80%. The frequencies of fosfomycin resistance genes were 5 (33.3%), 3 (20%), 2 (13.3%), 1 (6.6%), and 1 (6.6%) for fosC, fosX, fosA3, fosA, and fosB2, respectively. The fosB and fosC2 were not found. A low resistance rate to fosfomycin is observed. Fosfomycin is still one of the most effective and valuable alternative antibiotics against MDR Enterobacteriaceae isolated from UTIs in our region.