Preclinical Demonstration of a Novel Treatment with High Efficacy and No Detectable Toxicity for Inflammatory Skin Conditions including PsoriasisRead the full article
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Development of a Novel Vaccine Candidates against Cardiobacterium valvarum through Reverse Vaccinology and Computational Approaches
Antibiotic resistance is a major public health concern that has resulted in high healthcare costs, increased mortality, and the emergence of novel bacterial diseases. Cardiobacterium valvarum, an antibiotic-resistant bacterium, is one of the leading causes of heart disease. Currently, there is no licensed vaccination against C. valvarum. In this research, an in silico-based vaccine was designed against C. valvarum using reverse vaccinology, bioinformatics, and immunoinformatics techniques. 4206 core proteins, 2027 nonredundant proteins, and 2179 redundant proteins were predicted. Among nonredundant proteins, 23 proteins were predicted in an extracellular membrane, 30 in the outer membrane, and 62 in the periplasmic membrane region. After applying several subtractive proteomics filters, two proteins, TonB-dependent siderophore receptor and hypothetical protein, were chosen for epitope prediction. In the epitope selection phase, B and T-cellepitopes were analyzed and shortlisted for vaccine design. The vaccine model was designed by linking selected epitopes with GPGPG linkers to avoid flexibility. Furthermore, the vaccine model was linked to cholera toxin B adjuvant to induce a proper immune response. The docking approach was utilized to analyze binding affinity to immune cell receptors. Molecular docking results predicted 12.75 kcal/mol for a Vaccine with MHC-I, 6.89 for a vaccine with MHC-II, and 19.51 vaccine with TLR-4. The MMGBSA estimated -94, -78, and -76 kcal/mol for TLR-4 and vaccine, MHC-I and vaccine, and MHC-II and vaccine, while the MMPBSA analysis estimated -97, -61, and -72 kcal/mol for TLR-4 with the vaccine, MHC-I with vaccine, and MHC-II with a vaccine. Molecular dynamic simulation analysis revealed that the designed vaccine construct has proper stability with immune cell receptors as it is essential for inducing an immune response. In conclusion, we observed that the model vaccine candidate has the potency to induce an immune response in the host. However, the study is designed purely on a computational basis; hence, experimental validation is strongly recommended.
Carnosol Alleviates Collagen-Induced Arthritis by Inhibiting Th17-Mediated Immunity and Favoring Suppressive Activity of Regulatory T Cells
Current approaches are incurable for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Regulatory T (Treg) cells and T helper cells (Th1 and Th17) are crucial in controlling the process of RA, which is characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration and bone destruction. Carnosol is an orthodiphenolic diterpene that has been extensively applied in traditional medicine for the treatment of multiple autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Herein, we indicate that administration of carnosol dramatically alleviated the severity of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model with a decreased clinical score and inflammation reduction. Cellular mechanistically, carnosol inhibits the Th17 cell differentiation and maintains Treg cell suppressive function in vitro and in vivo. Meanwhile, it also restrains Treg cells from transdifferentiation into Th17 cells under inflammatory milieu. Furthermore, carnosol modulates the function of Th17 and Treg cells possibly via limiting IL-6R (CD126) expression. Collectively, our results suggest that carnosol can alleviate the severity of CIA via hiding Th17 cell differentiation and maintain the stability of Treg cells. Administration of carnosol can be applied as a potential therapy for patients with RA.
Effect of Molar Distalization on Condyle-Glenoid Fossa Relationship
Objective. It is essential to be aware of the potential effects of orthodontic treatment on tissues and anatomical structures associated with the masticatory system, especially the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). Little information is available about the consequences of molar distalization on the TMJ. Therefore, this study is aimed at investigating the changes of the condyle-fossa relationship after molar distalization using the distal jet appliance. Materials and Methods. The sample consisted of twenty-five patients (mean age ) who underwent molar distalization by the distal jet appliance. CBCT scans were taken before (T0) and after (T1) the completion of the molar distalization. Joint spaces (anterior, superior, and posterior) and cephalometric vertical angles (SN.GOME and Björk sum) were measured and compared at T0 and T1. Results. Superior and posterior joint spaces increased significantly after molar distalization (PS 0.29 mm, , SS 0.06 mm, ). Vertical cephalometric angles also increased after molar distalization by the distal jet appliance (SN.GOME 0.92°, Björk 1.11°). Conclusion. There was a statistically significant increase in the superior and posterior joint spaces after molar distalization. However, this increase may not be of clinical importance. The vertical dimension has also increased.
High-Fat Diet Promotes Adipogenesis in Offspring Female Rats Induced by Perinatal Exposure to 4-Nonylphenol
Background. Both high-fat diet (HFD) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP) could affect fat formation in adipose tissue individually. We investigated whether HFD promote abnormal adipose tissue formation caused by early exposure to 4-NP in life and preliminarily explore the possible mechanisms involved. Methods. The first-generation rats were treated with HFD on postnatal day after pregnant rats exposure to 5 ug/kg/day 4-NP. Then, the second generation rats started to only receive normal diet without 4-NP or HFD. We analyzed organ coefficient and histopathology of fat tissues, biochemical index, and gene level involved in lipid metabolism in female offspring rats. Results. HFD and 4-NP interaction synergistically increased birth weight, body weight, and organ coefficients of adipose tissue in offspring female rats. HFD accelerately aggravated abnormal lipid metabolism and increased the adipocyte mean areas around the uterus of the offspring female rats induced by prenatal exposure to 4-NP. HFD also facilitate the regulation of gene expression involved lipid metabolism in offspring female rats induced by perinatal exposure to 4-NP, even passed on to the second generation of female rats. Moreover, HFD and 4-NP interaction synergistically declined the gene and protein expression of estrogen receptor (ER) in the adipose tissue of second-generation female rats. Conclusion. HFD and 4-NP synergistically regulate the expression of lipid metabolism genes in adipose tissue of F2 female rats and promote adipose tissue generation, leading to obesity in offspring rats, which is closely related to low expression of ER. Therefore, ER genes and proteins may be involved in the synergistic effect of HFD and 4-NP.
Prevalence of CCR5 Delta 32 Genetic Variant in the Turkmen Population of Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran
The 32 bp deletion in the chemokine receptor (C-C motif) 5 gene (CCR5Δ32) is a natural loss of function polymorphism that prevents the protein from locating on the cell surface. This genetic variation acts as a double-edge sword in the pathogenesis/defense mechanism of different health conditions, such as viral infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancers. Here, we evaluated the prevalence of the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism in the Turkmen population of Golestan province, northeast of Iran. Blood samples were collected from 400 randomly selected Turkmen populations (199 women and 201 men), and genomic DNA was extracted. Characterization of CCR5Δ32 genotypes was performed by PCR using primers flanking the 32-nucleotide deletion in the CCR5 gene. The amplified DNA fragments were visualized on 2% agarose gel electrophoresis with cybergreen staining under UV light. All individuals were of Turkmen ethnicity and lived in the Golestan province, northeast of Iran. The mean age of all participants was 35.46 years, with a 20-45 year range. All the studied subjects were healthy without any severe conditions such as autoimmune disease and viral infections. All individuals had no history of HIV infection. The PCR product visualization showed that all the samples are at the 330 bp size, which means the CCR5Δ32 allele was utterly absent from the study population. The presence of the CCR5Δ32 allele among Turkmens may be attributed to the admixture with European descent people. We conclude that the CCR5Δ32 polymorphism may be absent in the Iranian Turkmen population, and further studies with a large population are needed.
An Overview of Nanomaterial Applications in Pharmacology
Nanotechnology has become one of the most extensive fields of research. Nanoparticles (NPs) form the base for nanotechnology. Recently, nanomaterials (NMs) are widely used due to flexible chemical, biological, and physical characteristics with improved efficacy in comparison to bulk counterparts. The significance of each class of NMs is enhanced by identifying their properties. Day by day, there is an emergence of various applications of NMs, but the toxic effects associated with them cannot be avoided. NMs demonstrate therapeutic abilities by enhancing the drug delivery system, diagnosis, and therapeutic effects of numerous agents, but determining the benefits of NMs over other clinical applications (disease-specific) or substances is an ongoing investigation. This review is aimed at defining NMs and NPs and their types, synthesis, and pharmaceutical, biomedical, and clinical applications.