Anemia has been accepted into Food Science and Technology Abstracts (FSTA).
Anemia publishes original research articles and review articles on all types of anemia. Articles focus on patient care, health systems, and epidemiology, among other relevant topics.
Anemia maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Preterm Delivery and Neonatal Deaths among Anaemic Pregnant Women in the Bolgatanga Metropolis of Ghana
Preterm deliveries and neonatal deaths as functions of anaemia in pregnancy are of major public health interest. However, data on the prevalence of preterm deliveries and their association with mortality in anaemic pregnant women in the study area are scanty. Thus, the study sought to investigate the prevalence of preterm delivery and neonatal deaths among anaemic pregnant women in the Bolgatanga Regional Hospital in the Upper East Region of Ghana during the past five years. A retrospective study design was adopted, and data were gathered between March and May 2016. Records of women who were anaemic during any trimester of their pregnancy and delivered in the hospital within the last five years were included in the study. In all, two hundred (200) cases were reviewed. Data on the sociodemographic characteristics, health status, and birth outcome of participants were captured, and analyses were conducted using SPSS version 21 while considering significant differences at . The study revealed that more than half of the anaemic women (52.5%, n = 105) had preterm deliveries, while neonatal mortality was 8.5% (n = 17). The proportion of mothers who received dietary or medical intervention for the treatment of anaemia and the number of attendances to antenatal clinics were comparable between preterm and normal-term mothers (). Mothers with preterm deliveries had a higher risk of neonatal mortality (AOR = 13.66, 95% CI = 1.65–113.30, and ). This study has shown that anaemia in pregnancy increases the risk of preterm delivery and neonatal death. It is recommended that extra care be given to pregnant women with anaemia, while further studies are conducted with a larger sample size to substantiate the claims made in this study.
Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization and Autoimmunization in Blood Transfusion-Dependent Sickle Cell Disease and β-Thalassemia Patients in Al-Ahsa Region, Saudi Arabia
Introduction. The risk of developing transfusion-related complications, especially alloimmunization, is an ongoing concern for transfusion-dependent patients. It is important to determine the rate of alloimmunization and autoimmunization in Al-Ahsa Region, Saudi Arabia, where sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia incidence rates are the highest in Saudi Arabia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted to review the transfusion history of patients with SCD and thalassemia at the King Fahad Hospital (KFH) in Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. 364 transfusion-dependent patients were included in this study. Results. Alloimmunization rates in patients with SCD and thalassemia were 16.7% and 11.97%, respectively, while autoimmunization rates in patients with SCD and thalassemia were 5.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The most frequent alloantibodies among the study participants were against Kell, Rh blood group systems. Conclusion. Blood transfusion-related alloimmunization and autoimmunization compromise the proper management of chronically transfused patients. Ideally, extended matched phenotyping should be implemented to prevent alloimmunization and reduce the risk of developing blood transfusion-related alloantibodies.
A Case-Control Study of the Factors Associated with Anemia in Chinese Children Aged 3–7 years Old
Background. Anemia in children is still an important public problem in China and can have a profound impact on the physical and mental health of children. The purpose of this study was to explore the risk factors for anemia among Chinese children aged 3–7 years old and to provide some basis for the prevention and control of anemia. Methods. A matched case-control study was conducted and 1104 children (552 cases and 552 controls) were recruited in this study. Cases were children who were diagnosed with anemia by the doctor of physical examination and checked by one deputy chief physician of pediatrics, and controls were healthy children without anemia. Data were collected using a self-designed structured questionnaire. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to identify independent determinants of anemia. values less than 0.05 were used to declare statistical significance. Results. In the multivariable analyses, maternal anemia before or during pregnancy and lactation (OR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.10∼4.15; OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.66∼4.94; OR = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.13∼5.60), gestational weeks (OR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.53∼0.96), having G6PD deficiency or thalassemia (OR = 8.12, 95% CI: 2.00∼33.04; OR = 36.25, 95% CI: 10.40∼126.43), having cold and cough in previous two weeks (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.04∼2.34), family income (OR = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.65∼0.97), and being a picky eater (OR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.20∼2.71) were determinants of anemia in children aged 3–7 years old. Conclusions. Some of the identified factors are modifiable and could be targeted to reduce childhood anemia. More emphasis should be given by the concerned bodies to intervene in the anemia problem by improving the maternal health education, screening for disease-related anemia, requesting medical services in a timely manner, improving the economic status of households, promoting dietary habits, and improving sanitation and hygiene practices.
A Review of the Risk Factors for Iron Deficiency Anaemia among Adolescents in Developing Countries
Introduction. Identifying the root causes of iron deficiency anaemia is a prerequisite for effective management and prevention in adolescents. This systematic review assessed risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia among adolescents living in developing countries. Method. Electronic databases such as PubMed, Cochrane Library, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and SCOPUS were comprehensively searched for studies published between 1990 and 2020 that involved risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia among adolescents living in developing countries. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the American Dietetic Association Quality Criteria Checklist. Results. A total of 2,252 publications were reviewed, and only fifteen cross-sectional studies were eligible for inclusion, eight of which focused on female adolescents and seven on both genders. Direct risk factors contributing to anaemia among adolescents included food intake practices (n = 10 studies), female adolescents (n = 8 studies), menstruation (n = 5 studies), and parasitic infection (n = 6 studies). Indirect risk factors found to be associated with anaemia among adolescents included low educational status (n = 4 studies) and low socioeconomic status (n = 3 studies). All fifteen studies were of good quality. Conclusion. Food intake practices, female adolescents, menstruation, parasitic infection, and low educational status were the leading risk factors of iron deficiency anaemia among adolescents. Further research should concentrate on assessing the effectiveness and efficacy of existing interventions aimed at preventing iron deficiency among vulnerable groups in developing countries.
The Prevalence and Pattern of Anaemia in Type 2 Diabetics in Ogbomosho, An Urban Community in Southwestern Nigeria
Anaemia is a frequent finding in type 2 diabetes, but it is typically seen with established chronic kidney disease and renal insufficiency. Cases, where anaemia predates renal insufficiency, are associated with a worse prognosis for the type 2 diabetes patient and an increased susceptibility to complications. This study aims to determine the prevalence and type of anaemia in persons living with type 2 diabetes without established chronic kidney disease in our environment. The study was a hospital-based cross-sectional study that involved 141 people with known type 2 diabetes as the study group and 140 healthy persons as controls. The study population and the controls were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using an interviewer-administered semistructured questionnaire at the Endocrinology clinic, Bowen University Teaching Hospital, Ogbomosho. The data obtained were analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 23.0 ( value ≤0.05 was considered significant). The biochemical (fasting lipids, HBA1C, FBG, serum albumin, creatinine, urea, uric acid, and insulin) and haematological (FBC and red cell indices; PVC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and RCDW) parameters of the respondents were analyzed using standard methods. The study showed a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of anaemia among subjects, 69.2% as compared to 30.8% of the control group. Normochromic normocytic anaemia was predominant among the subjects, whereas microcytic hypochromic anaemia was the predominant type in the controls. There was no statistically significant difference between MCV and MCHC of both subjects and controls. There was a positive correlation between the incidence of anaemia and the duration of diabetes among the subjects. More people with type 2 diabetes are now living longer, and the addition of haematological parameters should be part of their baseline investigations to aid in the early detection of complications.
Burden and Determinants of Anemia among Under-Five Children in Africa: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Introduction. Globally, anemia among under-five children is a serious public health problem. Even if there are pocket studies here and there, there is limited evidence on the pooled prevalence of anemia among under-five children in Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the pooled prevalence and determinants of anemia. Methods and Analysis. This systematic review and meta-analysis was done following the PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive search was made in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, HINARI, and Ethiopian Journal of Health Development for studies published since 2009. It was supplemented with Google Scholar search. Study selection, data extraction, and quality of studies were assessed by eight reviewers. The Cochrane Q test and I2 test statistic were used to test the heterogeneity of studies. A random-effects model of DerSimonian-Laird method was used. Result. A total of 37 articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of anemia among under-five children in Africa was 59% (95% CI: 55, 63). Being female (AOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.87), maternal education (AOR = 1.47; 95% CI: 1.31, 1.66), residence (AOR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.95), and family size (AOR = 0.93; 95% CI: 0.89, 0.98) were the determinants of anemia among African under-five children. Conclusion and Recommendation. This pooled study revealed that anemia was a severe public health problem. Sex, maternal education, residence, and family size were the determinants of anemia. Therefore, anemia prevention strategy should include sex consideration, educating mothers through youth education, area specific intervention, and encouraging birth spacing.