miRNA326-5p Targets DKC1 Gene to Regulate Apoptosis-Related Proteins and Intervene in the Development of NeuroblastomaRead the full article
Analytical Cellular Pathology provides a forum for pathologists and medical practitioners working in the cellular pathology field. Topics covered include cytology, carcinogenesis, cell receptors, biomarkers, diagnostic pathology, and immunopathology.
Chief Editor Professor Dimitrios Karamichos focuses on investigating corneal wound healing and dystrophies with a particular interest in the effect of transforming growth factor-β3 or TGF- β3 on corneal stromal cells and their extracellular environment.
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Functional Role of RBP in Osteosarcoma: Regulatory Mechanism and Clinical Therapy
Malignant bone neoplasms can be represented by osteosarcoma (OS), which accounts for 36% of all sarcomas. To reduce tumor malignancy, extensive efforts have been devoted to find an ideal target from numerous candidates, among which RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have shown their unparalleled competitiveness. With the special structure of RNA-binding domains, RBPs have the potential to establish relationships with RNAs or small molecules and are considered regulators of different sections of RNA processes, including splicing, transport, translation, and degradation of RNAs. RBPs have considerable significant roles in various cancers, and experiments revealed that there was a strong association of RBPs with tumorigenesis and tumor cell progression. Regarding OS, RBPs are a new orientation, but achievements in hand are noteworthy. Higher or lower expression of RBPs was first found in tumor cells compared to normal tissue. By binding to different molecules, RBPs are capable of influencing tumor cell phenotypes through different signaling pathways or other axes, and researches on medical treatment have been largely inspired. Exploring the prognostic and therapeutic values of RBPs in OS is a hotspot where diverse avenues on regulating RBPs have achieved dramatical effects. In this review, we briefly summarize the contribution of RBPs and their binding molecules to OS oncogenicity and generally introduce distinctive RBPs as samples. Moreover, we focus on the attempts to differentiate RBP’s opposite functions in predicting prognosis and collect possible strategies for treatment. Our review provides forwards insight into improving the understanding of OS and suggests RBPs as potential biomarkers for therapies.
Effect of PTGES3 on the Prognosis and Immune Regulation in Lung Adenocarcinoma
Background. PTGES3 is upregulated in multiple cancer types and promotes tumorigenesis and progression. However, the clinical outcome and immune regulation of PTGES3 in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) are not fully understood. This study aimed to explore the expression level and prognostic value of PTGES3 and its correlation with potential immunotherapy in LUAD. Methods. All data were obtained from several databases, including the Cancer Genome Atlas database. Firstly, gene and protein expression of PTGES3 were analyzed using Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER), R software, Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC), and Human Protein Atlas (HPA). Thereafter, survival analysis was conducted using the R software, Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis 2 (GEPIA2), and Kaplan–Meier Plotter. In addition, gene alteration and mutation analyses were conducted using the cBio Cancer Genomics Portal (cBioPortal) and Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) databases. The molecular mechanisms associated with PTGES3 were assessed via Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING), GeneMANIA, GEPIA2, and R software. Lastly, the role of PTGES3 in immune regulation in LUAD was investigated using TIMER, Tumor-Immune System Interaction Database (TISIDB), and SangerBox. Results. The gene and protein expression of PTGES3 were elevated in LUAD tissues and compared to the normal tissues, and the high expression of PTGES3 was correlated with cancer stage and tumor grade. Survival analysis revealed that overexpression of PTGES3 was associated with poor prognosis of LUAD patients. Moreover, gene alteration and mutation analysis revealed the occurrence of several types of PTGES3 gene alterations in LUAD. Moreover, co-expression analysis and cross-analysis revealed that three genes, including CACYBP, HNRNPC, and TCP1, were correlated and interacted with PTGES3. Functional analysis of these genes revealed that PTGES3 was primarily enriched in oocyte meiosis, progesterone-mediated oocyte maturation, and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways. Furthermore, we found that PTGES3 participated in a complex immune regulation network in LUAD. Conclusion. The current study indicated the crucial role of PTGES3 in LUAD prognosis and immune regulation. Altogether, our results suggested that PTGES3 could serve as a promising therapeutic and prognosis biomarker for the LUAD.
LncRNA AC040162.3 Promotes HCV-Induced T2DM Deterioration through the miRNA-223-3p/NLRP3 Molecular Axis
Background. Diabetes is one of the most common diseases and major public health burdens worldwide. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, and lncRNAs play an important role in HCV-induced T2DM. We aimed to explore the effect of lncRNA AC040162.3 on HCV-induced T2DM. Methods. HCV was used to infect MIN6 cells to establish an in vitro model. HCV copy number and miRNA expression were detected by Real Time Quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used to detect the secretion of insulin, and methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) was applied to analyze cell viability. Apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. In addition, Western blotting and TdT-mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling (TUNEL) were used to analyze pyroptosis. Luciferase reporter assays were used to investigate the targeting relationship. Results. The expression of LncRNA AC040162.3 and NLRP3 was markedly increased in HCV–T2DM, while the expression of miR-223-3p was remarkably inhibited. In vitro experiments demonstrated that lncRNA AC040162.3 silencing or miR-223-3p overexpression remarkably alleviated HCV-induced T2DM deterioration by inhibiting cell apoptosis and pyroptosis and enhancing cell viability. We then demonstrated that silencing lncRNA AC040162.3 promoted the expression of miR-223-3p and that miR-223-3p bound to lncRNA AC040162.3 and the NLRP3 binding site. In addition, the protective effects of LncRNA AC040162.3 silencing in HCV-infected MIN6 cells were reversed by overexpression of NLRP3 or silencing of miR-223-3p. Conclusion. Silencing of lncRNA AC040162.3 alleviates the process of HCV-induced T2DM by governing the miR-223-3p/NLRP3 axis.
Diagnostic Accuracy of p16INK4a/Ki-67 Dual Immunostaining for Detection of High-Grade Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia in Women Involved in Cervical Cancer Screening in Georgia
Background. Despite the widespread introduction of primary and secondary preventative measures, death rates for cervical cancer are still significantly high among females, especially in developing countries. Pap cytology and human papillomavirus-based screening often lead to unnecessary additional testing. The aim of this study is to analyze diagnostic accuracy of p16INK4a/Ki-67 dual immunostaining (DS) in cervical smear for identifying high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN2+). Materials and Methods. We studied the diagnostic performance of p16INK4a/Ki-67 DS in cervical smear of those women, who enrolled in cervical cancer screening due to abnormal previous screening results and compared it with Pap test results in identifying CIN2+. The reference standard was histopathology results. p16INK4a/Ki-67 DS and Pap test results for 162 women and histopathology results for 29 women were available, respectively. Results. In our study, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of p16INK4a/Ki-67 DS, irrespective of the morphology of stained cells to detect CIN2+ were 100%, 89%, 85%, and 100% (), respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of p16INK4a/Ki-67 DS is superior to that of existing cervical screening tests in the detection of CIN2+. Conclusion. The findings of cervical cancer screening based on Pap cytology highlight the importance of assessing the cost-effectiveness of integrating p16INK4a/Ki-67 biomarkers in cervical cancer cytology. Furthermore, these findings emphasize the need to enhance support for preventive programs for cervical cancer in Georgia.
TMEM147 Correlates with Immune Infiltration and Serve as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies and is associated with high mortality. Transmembrane protein 147 (TMEM147) is a seven-transmembrane protein that may mediate immune regulation. However, the relevance of TMEM147 to immune regulation in HCC and the prognosis of HCC patients are unclear. Methods. We analyzed TMEM147 expression in HCC by using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis of tumor tissues and cell lines were used to verify TMEM147 expression in HCC. The influence of TMEM147 on HCC prognosis was assessed using Kaplan–Meier analysis, Cox regression analysis, and a prognostic nomogram. The functions of the TMEM147-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by Gene Ontology (GO)/Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analyses and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). In addition, we examined the associations between TMEM147 expression and immune infiltration using single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) and immunofluorescence staining of HCC tissues. Results. Our results showed that the expression of TMEM147 was significantly higher in human HCC tissues than in adjacent normal liver tissues, with similar findings in human HCC cell lines. High TMEM147 expression was correlated with T stage, pathological stage, histological grade, race, alpha-fetoprotein level, and vascular invasion in HCC. Moreover, we revealed that high TMEM147 expression was associated with shorter survival times and that TMEM147 could be a risk factor for overall survival, along with T stage, M stage, pathological stage, and tumor status. Mechanistic studies revealed that high TMEM147 expression was linked to the B lymphocyte, antigen response, IL6 signaling pathway, cell cycle, Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) signaling pathway, and myelocytomatosis oncogene (MYC) targets. Correspondingly, TMEM147 expression was positively associated with the infiltration of immune cells, including Th2 cells, follicular helper T cells, macrophages, and NK CD56 bright cells in HCC. Conclusions. TMEM147 might be a biomarker for poor prognosis and is related to immune cell infiltration in HCC.
LINC01614 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Cell Growth and Migration by Regulating miR-217-5p/HMGA1 Axis
Colorectal cancer (CRC) substantially contributes to cancer-related deaths worldwide. Recently, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA), LINC01614, has emerged as a vital gene regulator in cancer progression. Yet, how LINC01614 affects CRC progression remains enigmatic. Here, we defined LINC01614 expression in CRC, investigated the performance of CRC cells lacking LINC01614, and elucidated the underpinning mechanism. We observed that LINC01614 was upregulated in both CRC tissues and cell lines. LINC01614 knockdown repressed the proliferation and metastasis capacity of CRC cell lines. Consistently, an in vivo LINC01614 deficiency model exhibited slow tumor growth rate. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay, RNA pull-down, and immunoprecipitation confirmed that LINC01614 targeted miR-217-5p. LINC01614 knockdown reduced the expression of HMGA1 and N-cadherin, while increasing that of E-cadherin, resulting in decreased viability, proliferation, migration, and invasion capacity of CRC cells. Our results demonstrate that LINC01614 regulates CRC progression by modulating the miR-217-5p/HMGA1 axis, thus holding great potential as a prognostic biomarker for CRC diagnosis and treatment.