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Anatomical and Biomechanical Characteristics of Peroneus Longus Tendon: Applications in Knee Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery
Introduction. The peroneus longus tendon is used in many orthopedic surgeries to regenerate the external ligaments of the knee. This study aims to evaluate some anatomical, biomechanical, and load-bearing properties of the peroneus longus tendon for use in cruciate ligament reconstruction. Materials and Methods. The study design is a cross-sectional description. The study subjects were 20 samples of the peroneus longus tendon from fresh carcasses. The leg is still intact, not crushed, is well preserved, and it has never been used in research. Results. The average length of the peroneus longus tendon was 29.25 ± 2.1 cm, and the average distance from the peroneus longus tendon to the deep peroneal nerve was 71.1 ± 8.63 mm. The peroneus longus tendon did not have an accessory ligament, the maximum tension of the peroneus longus tendon was 1170.4 ± 203 N, and the maximum length at break was 14.29 ± 3.88 mm. Conclusion. Removing the peroneus longus tendon will not affect the surrounding anatomical components. The maximum breaking force and the diameter of the peroneus longus tendon are similar to other graft materials, such as the hamstring tendon and patellar tendon.
The Impact of Maternal Age and Educational Level on Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Diagnosis and Screening: A Descriptive Comparative Study
Background. Early and proper screening for developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) is very critical to prevent catastrophic complication on the developing hip joint. Many factors (either maternal or child-related) that hinder timely DDH screening have been previously investigated. Methods. A cross-sectional descriptive study design was adopted. 175 babies presented for DDH screening coming with their mothers were investigated. Maternal age, age group, and educational level were recorded. In addition, multiple child-related variables such as age of screening, gender, positive family history, preterm delivery, and mode of delivery were recorded as well. Analysis for association between delayed vs. early screening was made against the maternal and the child-related variables. Results. A total number of 175 children with their mothers were investigated. The mean maternal age was 27.9 years, about one third of the mothers had a graduate level of education (36.3%), while 41.1% had high school education, and 22.3% had middle school education. On the other hand, 40.0% of the investigated babies were first born and two thirds of our sample babies were females (66.9%). Of the included babies, 100 (57.1%) were screened at the appropriate 4-month age, while 75 (42.9%) missed the 4-month screening. Chi-square analysis showed that delayed DDH screening was associated with a lower maternal educational level ( ≤ 0.001), younger maternal age ( ≤ 0.001), and first born baby ( ≤ 0.001). Positive family history was protective against delayed DDH screening ( = 0.032). Conclusion. The lower maternal educational level, younger maternal age group, and first born babies are risk factors for delayed DDH screening.
Minimally Invasive Technique in the Management of Tibial Pilon Fractures: New Approach and Promising Results
Background. Comminuted tibial pilon fractures are induced by high-energy mechanisms and are often associated with soft tissue injuries. Their surgical approach is problematic due to postoperative complications. Minimally invasive management of these fractures has a considerable advantage in preserving the soft tissue and the fracture hematoma. Materials and Methods. We conducted a retrospective study of a series of 28 cases treated at the Orthopedic and Traumatological Surgery Department of the CHU Ibn Sina in Rabat over a period of 3 years and 9 months, from January 2018 to September 2022. Results. After a mean follow-up of 16 months, 26 cases had good clinical results according to the Biga SOFCOT criteria and 24 cases had good radiological results according to the Ovadia and Beals criteria. No cases of osteoarthritis were observed. No skin complications were reported. Conclusion. This study highlights a new approach that deserves to be considered for this type of fracture as long as no consensus has been given.
Efficacy of Percutaneous Image-Guided Rupture of Lumbar Facet Cysts: A Retrospective Study
Background. Percutaneous rupture of lumbar facet cysts (LFC) is the only nonsurgical treatment which is effective in directly reducing cysts. However, this is not yet a common procedure, and its effectiveness, including the associated complications, remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of percutaneous rupture for LFC and elucidate whether this minimally invasive procedure could become an alternative to surgeries for cases resistant to conservative treatments. Methods. This study investigated 57 symptomatic patients with LFC for whom conservative treatments were ineffective and underwent percutaneous rupture of the LFC. All patients were followed up for >2 years posttreatment. Clinical evaluations (visual analogue scale (VAS) and recovery rate calculated using the Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores) and radiographic evaluations (size of LFC based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)) were performed from pretreatment to the final follow-up examination. Results. Successful LFC rupture, without hospitalization and general anesthesia, was achieved in 48 patients. No severe complications occurred during treatment through the last observation. Satisfactory clinical results with significant improvements in the VAS and JOA scores were obtained (VAS: pre/posttreatment: 80.7 mm/11.2 mm, JOA: pre/posttreatment: 15.6 points/26.7 points, and recovery rate: 82.3%). A significant reduction in the LFC was also observed in all cases based on the posttreatment MRI findings. No successful rupture cases required subsequent surgical treatments, although four cases of LFC recurrence required additional percutaneous rupture treatment. Conclusions. Percutaneous rupture for LFC is not only a safe and minimally invasive procedure without any severe complications or requirements for hospitalization and general anesthesia but also a beneficial procedure that can eliminate the need for surgery in cases resistant to conservative treatments.
Is the Combination of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Hyaluronic Acid the Best Injective Treatment for Grade II-III Knee Osteoarthritis? A Prospective Study
Background. Knee osteoarthritis is a common disease with increasing incidence and prevalence in western countries. It can cause severe pain and functional limitations, thereby representing a threat for patients’ quality of life and a burden for national health systems. Intra-articular injections with hyaluronic acid (HA) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been used for decades in order to reduce the symptoms caused by osteoarthritis. In recent years, a combination of HA and PRP has been introduced in clinical practice with the aim to minimize the clinical presentation of osteoarthritis and potentially delay articular degeneration. Materials and Methods. Sixty cases with grade II-III knee osteoarthritis according to the Kellgren–Lawrence classification were included in a prospective study, focused on the evaluation of clinical and functional outcomes after intra-articular knee injections. Cases were randomly divided into three groups. Twenty cases (Group A) were injected with HA, 20 (Group B) had PRP, and the remaining 20 (Group C) received a combination of HA and PRP. Basal WOMAC score and VAS score were recorded before the treatment and repeated within 3 and 6 months after the treatment. Results. At 6-month follow-up, Group C (PRP + HA) was the one with the lowest WOMAC and VAS mean values. It was also the only group that reported a reduction in the two values both in the first three months and in the following three months. No major complication was recorded. Conclusion. The combination of platelet-rich plasma and hyaluronic acid can be effective in the treatment of grade II-III knee osteoarthritis in a short-to-mid-term scenario. It represents an innovative and valuable alternative to the administration of its two components alone.
The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation for Bone Healing in Fracture Patients: A Systematic Review
While most literature on vitamin D supplementation in fracture patients focuses on fracture prevention, the effect of vitamin D on bone healing is a much less studied concept. The primary aim of this systematic review was to assess whether vitamin D supplementation in fracture patients improves clinical or radiological union complications. The secondary aims were to assess supplementation effect on patient functional outcome scores and bone mineral density (BMD). A systematic search of all relevant articles was performed using the following databases: MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and Web of Science. The population selection included human patients with a fresh fracture treated conservatively or operatively. The intervention included any form of vitamin D supplementation, compared to no supplementation or a placebo. The primary outcomes assessed were clinical or radiological union rates or complications arising from the nonunion. The secondary outcomes assessed were functional outcome scores, BMD scores after treatment, and pain scores. A total of fourteen studies, assessing a total of 2734 patients, were included. Eight studies assessed the effect of vitamin D on clinical or radiological union. Five studies reported no significant difference in complication rates when supplementing fracture patients. Alternatively, three studies reported a positive effect with supplementation between the groups. One of these studies found a difference only for early orthopaedic complications (<30 days), but no differences in late complications. The other two studies found significant differences in clinical union; however, no changes were observed in radiological union. Six studies investigated functional outcome scores after supplementation. Four of these studies found no significant differences between most functional outcome scores. Only three studies reported BMD outcomes, one of which found limited effect on total hip BMD. The overall findings are that vitamin D alone does little to influence fracture healing and subsequent union rates or functional outcome. The studies suggestive of a positive effect were generally of a lower quality. Further high quality RCTs are needed to justify routine supplementation at the time of fracture.