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Prevalence of Undiagnosed Hypertension and Associated Factors among Adults in Mizan-Aman Town, Bench Sheko Zone, Southwest Ethiopia: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional StudyRead the full article
Advances in Medicine publishes original research articles and review articles on recent advances in medicine and related disciplines. The journal focuses on diagnostic and imaging techniques, as well as drug design and development.
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Evaluation of the Awareness, Beliefs, and Psychological Impact of Patients with Alopecia Areata in Makkah City, Saudi Arabia
Background and Aim. Alopecia areata (AA) is an autoimmune hair disorder characterized by unpredictable noncicatricial patches of hair loss on the scalp or any hair-bearing area of the body. Patients’ understanding and perception of AA influence how they cope with hair loss. The current study aims to evaluate the awareness, beliefs, and psychological impact of patients with AA in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Methods. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among patients diagnosed with AA at different hospitals. A total of 211 patients were included in the investigation between November 2021 and June 2022. The participants were subjected to a well-structured, Arabic-based, validated questionnaire. Results. More than half of the patients were men (54.0%) and single (50.7%). The most common age groups were 30 to 44 years (46.9%) and 18 to 29 years (36.0%). More than two-thirds of the participants (67.8%) had heard of AA before their diagnosis. Of these, the level of knowledge was low among 36.4%, medium among 42.0%, and high among 21.7%. Most of the patients believed that AA may be caused by genetic, nutritional, or health factors (77.3%) and that it is a serious health problem that necessitates treatment (64.0%). The most common psychological attributes caused by AA are feeling ashamed in front of other individuals (63.0%), anxiety (47.9%), and depression (36.0%). Conclusion. Our results show more than two-thirds of the participants were knowledgeable about AA. Most believed that the cause of AA is genetic, nutritional, or health factors and suffered negative psychological effects. According to our study, high levels of anxiety and depression are closely associated with AA patients, which affect their quality of life.
Hearing Loss Diagnosis and Management in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Hearing loss is a common concern in patients with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), and early detection and intervention are crucial to prevent negative impacts on communication, cognition, socialization, safety, and mental health. Despite a lack of the literature specifically focused on hearing loss in adults with IDD, there is a substantial body of research demonstrating the prevalence of hearing loss in this population. This literature review examines the diagnosis and management of hearing loss in adult patients with IDD, with a focus on primary care considerations. Primary care providers must be aware of the unique needs and presentations of patients with IDD to ensure appropriate screening and treatment. This review highlights the importance of early detection and intervention, as well as the need for further research to guide clinical practice in this patient population.
Drug Development Strategies for Malaria: With the Hope for New Antimalarial Drug Discovery—An Update
Malaria continued to be a deadly situation for the people of tropical and subtropical countries. Although there has been a marked reduction in new cases as well as mortality and morbidity rates in the last two decades, the reporting of malaria caused 247 million cases and 619000 deaths worldwide in 2021, according to the WHO (2022). The development of drug resistance and declining efficacy against most of the antimalarial drugs/combination in current clinical practice is a big challenge for the scientific community, and in the absence of an effective vaccine, the problem becomes worse. Experts from various research organizations worldwide are continuously working hard to stop this disaster by employing several strategies for the development of new antimalarial drugs/combinations. The current review focuses on the history of antimalarial drug discovery and the advantages, loopholes, and opportunities associated with the common strategies being followed for antimalarial drug development.
Special Considerations for Management of Diabetes in Adult Patients with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic health condition that is very prevalent worldwide. It has been demonstrated that individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are at a disproportionately high risk for developing diabetes. Persons with IDDs are estimated to be 2-3 times more likely to develop DM compared to the general population. The elevated risk of developing diabetes within the population of adults with IDDs is multifactorial and includes contributions from genetics, lifestyle, medication use and misuse, boundaries to appropriate medical care, a higher incidence of comorbid mental health disorders, and others. Further, inadequate screening for and management of diabetes for these patients results in heightened risk for adverse cardiovascular events and inferior health care outcomes. To improve patient outcomes for this unique patient population, health care providers need to be well trained in the optimal modalities of screening, diagnosis, and management of diabetes in adults with IDDs. This requires the development of effective diabetes intervention and health promotion programs aimed at patients with IDDs, utilizing a patient-centered approach to screening and management, and conducting further research to assess the impact of these interventions.
Utilization of Skilled Birth Attendance among Mothers Who Gave Birth in the Last 12 Months in Kembata Tembaro Zone
Background. Skilled delivery is considered the single most important strategy in preventing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. It ensures safe birth, reduces actual and potential complications, and increases the survival of most mothers and newborns. Objective. To identify determinants of the utilization of skilled birth attendance among women who gave birth in the last 12 months in the Kembata Tembaro zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was employed from 1 April 2020 to 30 April 2020 among women who gave birth in the last 12 months in the Kembata Tembaro zone. Six hundred twenty-four mothers were recruited for the study as eligible participants. Multistage stratified sampling was used to select three districts and one town administrative unit of the study area. The data were collected and verified for their completeness, followed by editing and coding. Multivariate analysis was performed using the backward LR method to identify factors independently associated with the dependent variable. Statistical significance was declared at a value of less than 0.05, and the strength of statistical association was measured by adjusted odds ratio and 95% confidence interval. Result. Of 624 study subjects sampled, 607 provided information with a response rate of 97.3%. In this study, 309 (50.9%) women had their last birth at health facilities attended by skilled birth attendants. Place of residence (AOR (95% CI) = 0.33 (0.22,0.58)); age at interview (AOR (95% CI = 3.41 (1.57,5.45)); maternal education (AOR (95% CI) = 1.50 (1.34, 4.19)); history of still birth (AOR (95% CI) = 3.85 (2.14,6.91)); maternal occupation (AOR (95% CI) = 3.35 (1.79,6.27)); husband occupation (AOR (95% CI) = 2.69 (1.70,7.09)); ANC visit (AOR (95% CI) = 4.62 (3.12,7.32)); knowledge of obstetric complications (AOR (95% CI) = 3.10 (1.37,5.21)); and final decision-making about place of delivery (AOR (95% CI) = 3.64 (1.70,7.99)) were significantly associated with the use of skilled birth attendance. Conclusion. In this study, nearly half of the mothers used skilled birth attendance. Place of residence, age at interview, maternal education, history of still birth, maternal occupation, husband occupation, antenatal visit, knowledge about obstetric complications, and final decision-maker about place of delivery were determinants of the use of skilled attendance delivery.
Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern from Hospitalized Pneumonia Patients in National Referral Infectious Disease Hospital in Indonesia
Background. Pneumonia is still a major global problem with high morbidity and mortality. The increasing number of pneumonia cases caused by bacteria, especially multidrug-resistant pathogens, increasing age of the population, patients with chronic disease (comorbid), and inappropriate antimicrobial therapy at initial administration make the treatment become less effective. These issues finally contribute to higher morbidity and mortality in cases of hospitalized pneumonia patients. Therefore, it is crucial to know the microbial pattern and select the therapy according to local antimicrobial sensitivity patterns. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted for hospitalized pneumonia patients between January 2015 and December 2016 in Indonesia National Referral Infectious Disease Hospital. Data were collected from medical records to show patient characteristics, antimicrobial treatment data, culture examination, and bacterial sensitivity. Results. A total of 99 pneumonia patients required hospitalization and underwent sputum culture examination. The patients were mostly above 65 years old (32.3%) and male (57.6%). The most common comorbidities were pulmonary tuberculosis (21%), and the others were heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and HIV/AIDS. Based on the sputum culture, fungi were identified in most specimens (56%), while the bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae (14%), Acinetobacter sp. (12%), and Pseudomonas sp. (8%). Third-generation cephalosporin, such as ceftriaxone (50%), was commonly used as an antibiotic for pneumonia treatment. Conclusion. Most common bacteria isolated from sputum culture were Klebsiella pneumoniae which were more sensitive to the beta-lactam and aminoglycoside groups. The higher risk factors were age above 65 years old, being male, and having tuberculosis.
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