The Challenge of Applications of Probiotics in Gastrointestinal DiseasesRead the full article
Advanced Gut & Microbiome Research is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes original research and review articles related to all aspects of fundamental and applied research on gastroenterology, microbiology and their interactions.
Chief Editor, Prof Zongxin Ling, is the Principal Investigator of the Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases at Zhejiang University. Dr Ling's research focuses on the cross-talk between host and microbiota in human diseases.
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Unveiling the Role of Inflammatory Mediators and Gut Microbiome in Appendicitis: Types and Applications in Clinical Scoring
Appendicitis is a common medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by inflammation of the appendix. The exact mechanisms that trigger the inflammatory response in appendicitis are not well understood, but it is known that inflammatory mediators play a crucial role in the development and progression of the disease. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current understanding of the role of inflammatory mediators in the pathogenesis of appendicitis. This review article examines the various types of inflammatory mediators involved, including cytokines, chemokines, and prostaglandins, and discusses their interactions with other cells and molecules in the inflammatory cascade. Our review highlights the complex interplay between inflammatory mediators in the development of appendicitis and their potential implications for diagnosis and treatment of the disease. We discuss the potential for targeted therapies aimed at reducing the production or activity of specific inflammatory mediators, as well as the potential for new diagnostic approaches based on the detection of specific mediators in the blood or other bodily fluids. At the end, the role of inflammatory mediators in appendicitis is an active area of research, and continued investigation is necessary to fully elucidate the mechanisms involved. However, the growing understanding of the complex interactions between these molecules offers new opportunities for the development of targeted therapies and diagnostic tools for this common and potentially serious condition
Current Regulation and Initial Considerations for Successful Development and Commercialization of Microbiome Therapies
The gut microbiome is frequently referred to as the “second brain” or “second genome,” referring to the impact of the gut microbiota on our health. The microbiome is formed at birth, grows with the host, and is impacted by environmental variables such as nutrition, antibiotics, and lifestyle. Understanding the host health-gut microbiota correlation opens the possibility of modifying the gut microbiome to manage an individual’s health. Several techniques, such as probiotic, prebiotic, synbiotic, and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), are explored to alleviate the dysbiosis-related negative consequences and restore the gut microbiota in humans. While microbiome-based medicines have made remarkable progress in the last decade, from prebiotics and probiotics to live biotherapeutics, there are still safety concerns and regulatory issues to be addressed. The FMT treatment is currently experimental and lacks authorization, posing numerous ethical, legal, and social challenges that must be resolved as part of an effective regulatory policy response. This study gives an outline of our current understanding of microbiome restoration approaches as well as safety concerns regarding how these approaches are regulated. It presents an outline of the contemporary gut microbiome therapeutic development landscape and an assessment of the commercialization hurdles encountered.
Proteomic Characterization of Human Gut Habitual Bacteroides intestinalis against Common Intestinal Bile Acid Stress
Bacteroides intestinalis (B. intestinalis) is an abundant gastrointestinal commensal bacterium and is able to produce secondary bile acids (BAs) among other important metabolic functions. However, deoxycholic acid (DCA) is known to suppress Bacteroides, suggesting differential molecular impact of different BA species on Bacteroides. Among major human gastrointestinal BA components, we first demonstrated that DCA and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and their taurine-conjugated species at 1 mM showed significantly higher inhibitory effects on the growth of B. intestinalis than cholic acid (CA) and lithocholic acid (LCA) and their taurine-conjugated species. Then, high-throughput proteomic strategy was used to show that both TCDCA and TDCA caused more proteome-wide modulation than TCA and TLCA. In response to incremental BA toxicity, the main functional changes of B. intestinalis include enhanced protein synthesis, DNA integrity maintenance, and suppressed central metabolic activities. Importantly, key energy and BA metabolism enzymes of B. intestinalis were inhibited by TCDCA and TDCA. These findings provide a basis for future studies to explore how Bacteroides respond to bile stress and how BA composition modulate gut microbiome homeostasis.
Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity Studies on the Crude Leaf Extract of Solanum sisymbriifolium: Traditional Ethiopian Medicinal Plant
Ethiopians have used medicinal plants for centuries. In some cases, it is important and the only treatment source. However, these plant species have not been fully studied. In addition, society is inevitably losing knowledge of traditional medicinal plants as society adopts new lifestyles. Consequently, the objective of this research was to determine the phytochemical components and antibacterial activity of Solanum sisymbriifolium, a traditional medicinal plant used in Ethiopia to treat arthritis. Phytochemical analyses were performed on the leaf extracts to identify the bioactive constituents. The results of this study indicated that the plant contains carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, proteins, steroids, saponins, and terpenoids. Tannins and anthraquinones were absent. Alkaloids and terpenoids’ presence in the leaves of these plants is a potential bioactive for bacterial inhibitors. At optimal conditions (62°C, 72 hr, and 1 mm particle size), the maximum extraction yield is %. Crystals obtained from aqueous methanol extracts were subjected to FT-IR, and the compound spectrum showed a characteristic absorption band for the N-H group at 3500 cm-1 and 1700 cm-1 for the C = O group, and the medium intensity at 1236 cm-1 indicates a C-O stretching. Sharp absorption at 707 cm-1 is inductive for = C-H bending. According to agar disc diffusion tests, plant extracts of 50 mg/mL produced 14.04 mm growth inhibition zones of Bacillus subtilis. Phytochemical and antibacterial studies of Solanum sisymbriifolium indicated that the plant is a source of highly valued compounds for the preparation of medications.
Overview of Helicobacter pylori Infection, Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Its Prevention
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) (formerly known as Campylobacter pyloridis) has been studied for over a century due to its association with peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Its prevalence has been declining due to improvements in hygienic conditions and effective curative and preventive approaches. However, it is still present in different communities and continues to spread, increasing its global presence in both developing as well as developed countries. Extensive research has been ongoing to eradicate this pathogen, and at present, scientists have discovered different management options. This article highlights the global prevalence of H. pylori infection and the factors responsible for its transmission, treatment regimens, and prevention.
Pathology and Epidemiology of Fungal Infections in Layer Chicken Flocks
Fungal infections have a key effect on the commercial poultry production and welfare. Infections caused by fungi and their food contaminants are zoonotic and influence food safety. Eggs and cooked meats remain major public health concerns. Therefore, this research is aimed at examining the pathology and understanding the epidemiology of fungal infection in layer chicken flocks. The study was carried out on twenty-layer flocks from Kafrelsheikh Governorate, Egypt, from January 2019 to December 2020. In total, 600 samples were collected from 100 healthy and diseased layer chickens from different organs (skin, liver, lung, kidney, spleen, and ovary). In this work, we present the clinical and pathological characteristics of some fungal pathogens (Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp.) in layer chicken flocks, as they are responsible for reducing the egg production. In total, 19 fungal strains were isolated from individual chickens, and these were analysed to determine the fungal species. The total proportion of fungal infections at the farm level was (3/20) 15%. The main clinical signs were emaciation and mortalities that reached . We report the first isolation of Aspergillus piperis and Fusarium species from the ovary of poultry, which is the main reason for egg retention and multiple numerous nodules of occasional caseating centers in layer ovaries. The histopathological findings of Aspergillus infection are indicated by the presence of branched hyphae that tend to be numerous and progressive. Furthermore, we found spherules with multiple endospores of Fusarium spp. in the ovaries. Morphological and molecular identification and analysis were performed to confirm the etiological agents.