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International Journal of Forestry Research publishes research about the management and conservation of trees or forests, including tree biodiversity, sustainability, habitat protection and the social and economic aspects of forestry.
International Journal of Forestry Research maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Woody Species Composition, Structure, and Diversity of Dindin Natural Forest, South East of Ethiopia
Information on species composition, structure, and diversity is essential to introduce and select different management activities to improve the forest productivity. Accordingly, species composition, structure, diversity, and regeneration status of trees were assessed in the Dindin natural forest. In this forest, trees or shrubs having ≥2.5 cm diameter at breast height and height >1.5 m were identified and measured in 35 quadrats of 20 m × 20 m. Regeneration status was assessed in 5 m × 5 m subplots that were laid within each main plot to sample seedling and sapling. Woody species diversity, density, basal area, and importance value index were calculated. To prioritize conservation efforts, the study utilized factors such as the importance value index, seedling and sapling densities, and population structure. A total of 42 woody tree species representing 30 families were recorded in the forest. The diversity and evenness of woody species in the Dindin forest were 2.66 and 0.70, respectively. Woody species density was 1403 individual ha−1, and the total basal area was 35.54 m2ha−1. About 480 seedlings per hectare were recorded in the Dindin forest. The research yielded practical insights into the dominance, population structure, importance value, and regeneration status of tree species. The analysis of population structure indicates that certain dominant species are experiencing inadequate regeneration. In addition, multiple nondominant shrubs and tree species within the forest are also at risk of extinction due to insufficient regeneration. Therefore, these important findings play a crucial role in the formulation and implementation of effective strategies to restore and rehabilitate the studied forest.
Woody Species Conservation, Management, and Its Socioeconomic Importance of Agroforestry Practice in Ethiopia
The preservation of biodiversity is not at all a luxury. In many developing countries, the reduction in biodiversity caused by the conversion of primary forest to unsustainable agricultural landscapes has increased. Agroforestry provided habitat for various species of wildlife and had significant social and environmental advantages. However, there is a lack of knowledge on the significance of agroforestry in the management and conservation of woody species. The review’s main goal is to emphasize the socioeconomic significance of agroforestry in Ethiopia and the conservation and management of woody species. The most common agroforestry practices are typically carried out in different parts of the country on homegardens, crops, woodlots, and coffee farms. The most typical woody species utilized in agroforestry practices in southern Ethiopia are Cordia africana, Millettia ferruginea, Erythrina brucei, and Olea capensis. In Ethiopia’s northern region, you can find Croton macrostachyus, Vernonia amygdalina, Faidherbia albida, Acacia nilotica, Acacia seyal, and Grewia bicolor. The central highlands of Ethiopia also have Albizia gummifera, Cordia africana, Croton macrostachyus, Ficus vasta, and Vernonia amygdalina. Agroforestry improves the environment and the socioeconomic system by producing tree products such as timber, firewood, food, and building materials (reduce soil erosion, increase soil moisture and fertility, coffee shade, and keep microclimate balance). Woody species in agroforestry are managed through pollarding, thinning, and pruning.
Gum and Resin Production and Marketing: Implications for Pastoral Livelihood in Adadle District, Somali Region, Ethiopia
Both locally and nationally, Ethiopia’s gum resin sector has a substantial economic impact. Even though collecting and selling gum and resin is one of the main livelihood activities in Ethiopia’s remote pastoral areas, there are few case studies that adequately reflect national realities. Therefore, the goal of this study is to pinpoint and evaluate gum and resin production and sale, as well as any implications for pastoral livelihood, in the Adadle district of the Somali Region. Both purposive and random sampling techniques were employed. The primary data gathering technique used were household surveys, key informant interviews, focus groups, market surveys, direct observation, and surveys of community-based organizations. Multiple response tests, one-way ANOVA, and descriptive statistics were used in SPSS Version 26 to statistically analyze the collected data. The study discovered many Acacia, Boswellia, and Commiphora tree species that are employed in the production of gum and resin. It was also found that natural oozing and artificial tapping were the methods used for collecting and harvesting gum and resin. The average amount of gum and resin/frankincense harvested annually by each family was 219.82 kg and 58.27 kg, respectively, with gum harvesting being substantially higher () than resin harvesting. The recurrent drought, season, and awareness level of harvesters on taping were the factors affecting the quantity and quality of production. The average annual household income from gum and resin/frankincense was 18,684 Ethiopian Birr and 43,704 Ethiopian Birr, respectively. The mean annual income from resin was substantially larger () than that of gum. The gum and resin market chain in the area comprises eight actors with five market channels. The research also demonstrates that the income made by selling gum and resin was used to pay for basic necessities for the family, save money for health care and medications, and pay for social concerns and educational expenses. Recurrent drought, lack of market access and market expertise, lack of institutional cooperatives, and lack of infrastructure and facilities were all determined to be obstacles to the production and sale of gum and resin. Generally, resources should be conserved and interventions should be done to ensure the sustainability of the resource base and improve production potential. Proper tapping techniques should be introduced to enhance production potential, and access to market information should be ensured to maximize primary producers’ income share insured for maximizing the income share of primary producers.
Review on Selected Church Forests of Ethiopia: Implication for Plant Species Conservation and Climate Change Mitigation
Forests are known to play an important role in the conservation of biodiversity and regulation of global climate. Global climate is regulated through sequestering and storing much more carbon from the atmosphere due to the presence of forests. However, loss of forest cover and biodiversity due to anthropogenic activities are a growing concern in many parts of the world. The problem of deforestation and loss of biodiversity is more pronounced in developing countries like Ethiopia. Because of deforestation, the species diversity and climate mitigation potential of natural forests are going to be reduced. Thus, patches of Church forests are left and found throughout the degraded landscapes. Because of their religious significance, these forests have been conserved by local communities. They are the only refuge for different plant species and store high amounts of atmospheric carbon. This is due to local communities do have higher respect and trust in them than other local institutions, which has made the Church the central institution and platform for socio-economic issues of the people. As stated by different scholars, around the Church areas, numerous indigenous and International Union for Conservation of Nature red list species existed. In terms of the diversity of species, the forest around the Church has compared to that of a natural forest. Next to the conservation role, the conserved plant species have a significant contribution to climate change mitigation through carbon stock in biomass and soil. Trees in the Church areas have long life history and are higher in stand structure parameters such as height, diameter at breast height, crown diameter, and their carbon storage potential has been maximum. Overall, Church forests are serving as hot spot sites for biodiversity conservation and have a significant role in mitigating climate change by limiting greenhouse gas emissions and increasing the amount of carbon stored in forests.
Coffee Management Intensification Has Changed the Tradition of Coffee Forest Use in Southwest Ethiopia
The coffee production system has changed the notion of a forest common resources pool in southwest Ethiopia. It is weakening the customary right on forest through time. The objective of the study was to explore forest resources use in relation to coffee management intensity in southwest Ethiopia. The effect of coffee management intensification was narrated based on the nature of accessing forest resources, local control system, level of forest dependency, and nontimber forest products usage through time. Qualitative data were collected through an interview and walk-in-the-woods. It is worth mentioning that an age-old customary right is devolved, and a modified forest management arrangement is emerging along with the coffee production system. The result showed that coffee agroforest drives the use of forest resources in southwest Ethiopia. Coffee production is replacing the tradition of forest management for nontimber forest products. Collection of nontimber forest products is overwhelmed with coffee harvesting. Honey production area (i.e., Luggoo) has been changed to coffee plot. Only coffee owners hold the right to access coffee agroforest. Individual decisions are bypassing the social arrangement of forest resources usage. The nature and level of forest dependency have been changed along with the intensification of coffee management. In contrary to what most people believe, the study findings showed that better-off households are more forest dependent compared to poor households due to coffee production. The storyline depicts the need for taking into account coffee agroforest in sustainable forest management. The study suggests to revisit the notion of recognizing traditional forest resource usage brings sustainable forest management.
Determinants of the Market Outlet Choice of Bamboo Culms (Yushania alpine) Producers in Banja District, Western Ethiopia
Bamboo meets a growing and various bamboo product demand and generates revenue. The study is aimed at analyzing the critical variables that affect the choice of alternative bamboo market outlets. By using two stages sampling procedures, 114 bamboo producers were randomly and proportionally selected. The determinants that affect the choice of bamboo market outlet were analyzed by multivariate probit model. Based on the model result, the probability of bamboo producers to select wholesaler, retailer, processor, and local traders’ outlet were 16.8%, 46.2%, 60.8%, and 54.3%, respectively. The probability of success and failure to select four market outlets were 2.5% and 2.2%, respectively. The result of MVP revealed that family size, total land holding size, amount of culm production, farming experience, distance to the market, and silviculture management practice affected the probability of farmers’ market outlet choice. Therefore, improving the producers’ knowledge and skills through capacity building and creating framers’ organization for collective action can help producers select the right market to sell bamboo products.