International Journal of Food Science has been accepted into:
Emerging Sources Citation Index (Web of Science), and
Food Science and Technology Abstracts
International Journal of Food Science publishes research in all areas of food science. It is a multidisciplinary journal and includes research on enhancing shelf life, food deterioration, food engineering, food handling, food processing and similar.
Chief Editor, Giorgia Spigno, is a Professor of Food Science and Technology at Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. Her research focuses on the valorisation of agro-food waste, food product development, and food packaging.
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Nutritional Quality and Popability of Popcorn (Zea mays L. var. everta) in Response to Compost and NPK 20-7-3 Application under Dryland Condition of South Africa
The dietary value of popcorn, an important snack, depends on its proximate and nutritional constituents, while the economic worth is based on popability and expansion traits of the kernels. There is paucity of information on how soil fertility influences or relates with popping potentials as well as quality of popcorn kernel in semi-arid region. Therefore, the proximate composition and popping parameters of popcorn in response to organic and inorganic fertilizers were investigated. The field trial was conducted in 2017-2019, and it comprised five amendment rates including 90 and 180 kg ha-1 NPK fertilizer and 4 and 8 t ha-1 compost and unamended treatment as the control. The trial was arranged in randomized complete block design in triplicate. Data on kernel yield, biomass, and harvest index were evaluated. Kernels were analysed for proximate composition and popping indices using standard procedures. Across the two seasons, mean protein (8.1%) and fibre (10.2%) contents were highest in kernels from plots fertilized with NPK at 180 kg ha-1, while grains from plots fertilized with 8 t ha-1 compost had the highest moisture (19.3%) and starch (50.1%) contents. The highest kernel expansion of 54.18 cm3 g-1 and 77.6% popped kernels were obtained in plots fertilized with 4 t ha-1 compost. Most of the kernels (61%) were small-sized caryopsis. Popability is significantly associated with volume expansion (). Proximate components and popability improved greatly in compost-augmented field relative to the unfertilized plots. Application of 4 or 8 t ha-1 sorted municipal solid waste compost to Luvisol enhanced growth and nutritional quality of popcorn. In view of promoting nutrient cycling towards improving soil fertility without compromising environmental health, compost is comparable and a good alternative to fossil-based mineral fertilizers.
Enhanced Goat Milk MUFA Quality via Date Pit Supplementation: A Time-Based Pattern Recognition Analysis Utilizing Agricultural Waste Byproduct
Date pits are agricultural waste byproducts and are available in tons yearly. Milk MUFAs are lipids beneficial for health and sorted out for food product development. This work is aimed at researching the effect of supplementing dairy goats with date pit powder (DPP) as a source of fatty acids (FA), an alternative to enhancing the unsaturated FA in milk and analysed via chemometrics in a 3-month supplementation-based study. Saanen-Boer crossed dairy goats were divided into six groups comprising of control, 10 g and 20 g both for Ajwa DPP (high-quality dates) and Mariami DPP (agricultural waste byproduct), and another 30 g for Mariami DPP only. The supplementation exercise was done daily on each dairy goat. The DPP and milk samples were analysed for its FA profile applying GC-FID and followed by chemometric techniques, namely, PCA and PLS. Results indicated that the n-6/n-3 ratio was the highest for the unsupplemented group compared to the DPP-treated goats with lower n-6/n-3 ratios. The M30 group showcased the most promising health-related class of FAs viewed by 3D PCA and PLS model clustering patterns, in particular monounsaturated FA (MUFA) (C18:1n9c or oleic acid). These results suggest that Mariami DPP supplementation at higher doses and time to lactating Saanen-Boer cross goats can be a means to milk FA quantity and quality enhancement and that chemometrics via pattern recognition can be useful statistical tools when dealing with overwhelming data.
The Effects of Quinoa and Amaranth Flour on the Qualitative Characteristics of Gluten-Free Cakes
The effect of pseudocereal flour such as quinoa and amaranth in different concentrations (0, 10, 20, and 30%) was investigated in gluten-free cake formulation. Cake containing amaranth and quinoa flour showed higher protein, fat, ash, and fiber content. A30 (30% amaranth) and Q30 (30% quinoa) had the highest values, and the control sample had the lowest values. The moisture content of the gluten-free cakes was not in the range of the Iranian standard. The sample containing 20% quinoa flour showed the highest specific volume ( cm3/g) and the lowest hardness ( g) (). value varied from 72.09 to 79, and the gluten-free cakes had a darker color. All the cakes containing quinoa and amaranth flour showed low and values (). Gluten-free cakes contain high amounts of unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic acids) and minerals (iron, calcium, magnesium, and zinc). The results of the sensory evaluation showed that the sample containing 10% of amaranth and quinoa flour obtained the highest taste, aroma, color, appearance, and overall acceptability score compared to other treatments. In conclusion, it is possible to produce gluten-free cakes with quinoa and amaranth flour with sensory and physicochemical properties similar to wheat cakes. The formulations containing 20% and 30% quinoa were the best.
Physicochemical Properties of Avocado Seed Extract Model Beverages and Baked Products Incorporated with Avocado Seed Powder
Consumption of avocado (Persea americana Mill.) has increased worldwide in recent years. The avocado pulp is used, but the peel and seed are discarded as waste. Studies have shown that the seeds are rich in phytochemicals that can be utilized in food systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Hass avocado seed as a source of polyphenols in the processing of model beverages and baked products with functional properties. The proximate analysis of the avocado seed powder was carried out. The shelf life of phenols in avocado seed powder (ASP) stored in dark, amber-colored bottle and transparent bottle was studied for six months. The seed extract was incorporated into model beverages of different pHs stored at refrigerated and ambient temperatures, and the shelf life was monitored for 20 weeks. The seed powder was incorporated into baked products at 0, 15, 30, or 50% followed by total phenolic content and sensory property analysis. Proximate composition of the seed powder for moisture, ash, protein, fiber, fat, and total carbohydrates was 14.19, 1.82, 7.05, 4.00, 13.64, and 59.30 percent, respectively. During storage of the seed powder, there was no significant difference () in the phenol content under the different storage light conditions for six months. In the model beverages, lower pH levels (2.8, 3.8, and 4.8) and those stored at ambient temperatures (25°C) recorded lower phenol content than the control pH, i.e., 5.5, and those under refrigerated conditions throughout the storage period studied (20 weeks). The concentration of phenols in the baked products increased with increasing avocado seed powder. The color of all the queen cake formulations was liked very much by the sensory panel. The aroma of 0% and 15% ASP was liked very much, while the other formulations (30% and 50%) were liked moderately. The taste rating and overall acceptability decreased with an increasing avocado seed powder in the queen cake formulations. Avocado seed extracts can be incorporated to prepare functional beverages and functional baked products that are acceptable by sensory panelists.
The Effect of Feeding Laying Hens with Nonindustrial Hemp Seed on the Fatty Acid Profile, Cholesterol Level, and Tocopherol Composition of Egg Yolk
The purpose of this study was to evaluate how cannabis-derived nonindustrial hemp seed (HS) inclusion in laying hen diets, as well as treatment duration, affected the fatty acid (FA) profile, cholesterol level, and tocopherol composition of egg yolks. Ninety-six () Lohmann Brown classic laying hens were randomly assigned to one of the four groups: control (standard diet) and HS-containing diets (10% HS, 20% HS, and 30% HS). The study was conducted for a period of 4 months. The findings demonstrated that the FA profile and the tocopherol composition are strongly impacted by the addition of HS to the diet of laying hens (), but the cholesterol content remained unaffected. The increase in the dose of cannabis incorporated into the hen’s diet (HS-30% group) led to a significant increase in the amounts of the polyunsaturated fatty acids n-3 and n-6 content of egg yolk. This enrichment was accompanied by a considerable decrease in the n-6/n-3 ratio () from 8.19 to 4.88, on day 84 of the experiment. The total tocopherol content significantly increased () from 281.44 (control) to 327.02 μg/g yolk (HS-30%) on day 84. Finally, in the context of warfare, these seeds might be used as a feed additive for laying hens to produce higher nutritive value eggs with affordable prices.
Parasitological and Bacteriological Evaluation of Common Raw Fruits Collected from Two Major Markets in Iwo, Osun State, South-West Nigeria
Background. Fruits are a vital part of human nutrition because they contain the growth factors required to maintain normal health. Fruits are also known to harbour a wide range of parasites and bacteria. Consumption of unwashed raw fruits can lead to foodborne pathogens. This study was carried out to examine the presence of parasites and bacteria on fruits sold at two major markets in Iwo, Osun state, South-West Nigeria. Methods. Twelve different fresh fruits and seven different fresh fruits were purchased from different vendors from “Odo-ori” and “Adeeke” markets, respectively. The samples were transported to the microbiology laboratory of Bowen University, Iwo, Osun state for bacteriological and parasitological analysis. The parasites were concentrated by sedimentation and were examined using a light microscope, while for the microbial analysis, culturing and biochemical tests were also carried out on all the samples. Results. The parasites discovered include Fasciola hepatica eggs, Ascaris lumbricoides and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae, hookworm larvae, and Taenia and Trichuris trichiura eggs. Ascaris lumbricoides was most frequently detected (40.0%). Bacteria isolated from the sampled fruits include Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Kluyvera ascorbata, Proteus mirabilis, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus sp., Micrococcus sedentarius, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, and Streptococcus zooepidemicus. Conclusion. The presence of parasites and bacteria on the fruits observed indicates that public health diseases may arise from their consumption. Awareness and education among farmers, vendors, and consumers about the importance of personal and food hygiene through proper washing or disinfection of fruits could reduce the risk of parasites and bacterial fruit contamination.