Maternal and Perinatal Outcomes of Pregnant Patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019: Data from a University Hospital Setting in Tirana, Albania, May 2020 to November 2021Read the full article
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes articles related to infectious diseases in women’s health. Topics include diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, urinary tract infections, and infections in pregnancy.
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Cholera Infection Risks and Cholera Vaccine Safety in Pregnancy
Introduction. Discuss the impact of cholera infection on pregnant women, fetus, and neonates and review the safety of cholera vaccines in pregnancy. Methods. This study was carried out as a narrative review during November 2022. A thorough literature review was conducted on the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, SciELO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect. The following parameters were assessed from the included studies: type of cholera vaccine, cholera symptoms, cholera treatment, effect of cholera on pregnancy, effect of cholera treatment on pregnancy, effect of cholera vaccine on pregnancy, risk factors for fetuses and neonates, and prevention of cholera. The authors independently extracted data from the 24 included studies. Results. Cholera infection is a serious threat on pregnancy as it could lead to increased stillbirths and neonatal death. Fetal death was shown to occur mainly in the third trimester as most of the pregnant women infected with cholera had spontaneous abortions even after controlling for other confounding variables such as maternal age, dehydration level, and vomiting. Neonatal death was attributed mainly to congenital malformations and low Apgar scores with no improvements. Besides, cholera vaccines have shown to be safe in pregnancy and have proven to lower fetal and neonatal malformations among vaccinated compared to nonvaccinated pregnant women. Conclusion. This narrative summarizes the different complications due to cholera infection in pregnancy. It also reviews the safety of cholera vaccine administration in pregnant women.
Level of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Pregnant Women on Antenatal Care in Amatere Health Center, Massawa, Eritrea: A Cross-Sectional Study, 2019
Background. Proper antenatal care is one of great means of reducing maternal and child morbidity and mortality. However, determining level of knowledge and practice is vital, and the objective of this study was to evaluate this gap among pregnant women in Amatere Health Center, Massawa city, Eritrea, 2019. Methods. A cross-sectional study with systematic sampling was conducted. All pregnant mothers who were resident of Massawa city and visiting Amatere Health Center for their current pregnancy were included in the study. An interviewer-administered structured questionnaire was used as data collection tool. Results were presented using descriptive statistics, percent, and frequencies. Results. A total of 289 pregnant mothers were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 27.7 years. Most mothers reported that high blood pressure (92.4%), maternal smoking (97.6%), alcohol consumption (97.2%), infection (92.7%), and medicines (98.3%) had affected fetal growth during pregnancy. Practically, two-thirds (59.4%) of the mothers were visiting the health facility during the first three months of their pregnancy. Majority of mothers had good knowledge (84.1%) and attitude (99%), but they had low level of practice (45%). Marital status, occupation, gravidity, and parity had showed statistically significant association to their comprehensive knowledge (). And their gravidity () and parity () had also showed statistically significant association to their level of practice. Conclusion. Even though majority of the pregnant mothers had high level of knowledge and attitude, their practice towards ANC was relatively low. Age, marital status, and occupation showed statistically significant association to their comprehensive knowledge. Moreover, multiparous and multigravida mothers were having higher level of knowledge and practice on antenatal care. Enhancing community awareness on early starting of antenatal care and improving their practice through proper counseling are highly recommended.
Acceptance of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination and Associated Factors among Girls in Arba Minch Town, Southern Ethiopia, 2020
Background. Cervical cancer is Ethiopia’s second biggest cause of cancer-related death among women. The introduction of human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is expected to have a significant impact on the burden of cervical cancer. In Ethiopia, particularly in our study area, little is known regarding girls’ acceptance of HPV vaccination. Therefore, this study has assessed the acceptance of HPV vaccination and associated factors among girls in Arba Minch town, southern Ethiopia. Methods. A school-based cross-sectional study was conducted on January 1, 2020. Based on convenience, Arba Minch town was purposefully selected. Stratification was done to stratify private and public schools, then simple random sampling to select sample schools from each, and finally, a proportional allocation of sample size to each school. The determinants and independent variables that influence the acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccination were determined using a multivariable logistic regression model. Results. This study’s overall acceptance rate for study participants was 50.4% (95% CI) (45.9–55.2). Girls’ age (, 95% CI (1.57_5.47), value 0.001), mothers’ educational level (secondary and more than secondary, , 95% CI (1.01_5.73), value 0.048, and 3.64, 95% CI (1.61_8.25), value 0.002, respectively), positive attitude (, 95% CI (2.96_9.19), ), good knowledge (, 95% CI (1.19_5.24), value 0.001), and receiving childhood immunization (, 95% CI (8.58_25.72), ) were factors associated with girls’ acceptance of the human papillomavirus vaccination. Conclusions and Recommendation. Only half of the study participants accepted HPV vaccination. Therefore, Arba Minch town health institutions should better boost the acceptance of HPV vaccination by improving the knowledge and attitudes of girls. Factors associated with girls’ acceptance of HPV vaccination were age, mothers’ educational status, positive attitude, knowledge of HPV vaccination, and receiving childhood immunization.
Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy: What Do the Pregnant Women of Nigeria Know and Do about It?
Objective. We assessed knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding two malaria prevention measures (long-lasting impregnated mosquito nets, LLINs, and intermittent preventative therapy with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (IPTp-SP)) among pregnant women in Nigeria. Methods. Pregnant women selected from among the four communities of Nnewi were interviewed by using a semistructured, interviewer-administered questionnaire on the respondents’ demography, knowledge of the cause, consequences, and malaria prevention methods. Also, a total of 48 focused group discussions, 24 key informant interviews, and 24 in-depth interviews were held among women leaders, village heads, pregnant women, community health workers, husbands of pregnant wives, and drug and insecticide-treated net sellers. Results. A total of 384 women (88.0% third trimester, 90.0% literate, and 41.1% primigravidae) participated. About 80.0% suffered from malaria during their current pregnancy. The majority was aware of the cause of malaria, local name of malaria, mode of transmission, risk of malaria among pregnant women, etc. However, their knowledge and attitude were inadequate regarding the symptomatology and complications of malaria in pregnancy, benefits of sleeping under the net or taking chemoprophylactic doses, or the concurrent use of both. About 80.0% had LLINs, yet only 41.5% slept under it the previous night. Only 31.0% had IPTp-SP doses under direct observation. Only 35.9% had a good understanding of IPTp-SP during pregnancy. Conclusion. Our work presents important practice gaps associated with the prevention of malaria during pregnancy. The pregnant women seemed to be aware of the basic concepts related to malaria but that does not translate into adequate attitude and practice necessary for malaria reduction.
Female Genital Tuberculosis: Clinical Presentation, Current Diagnosis, and Treatment
Female genital tuberculosis is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the female reproductive tract. The disease burden among women leads to infertility is significant, especially in developing countries. The bacteria can spread from the lung into the reproductive organ through lymphatic or hematogenous. Many patients present with atypical symptoms, which mimic other gynecological conditions. Several investigations are needed to establish the diagnosis. Almost all cases of genital TB affect the fallopian tube and cause infertility in patients and endometrial involvement. Current treatment still relies on antituberculosis therapy with a combination of tubal surgery. The present review describes the epidemiological data, clinical presentation, diagnosis, and currently available treatment to cure the disease and for in vitro fertilization.
An Initial Survey on the Prevalence of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) among Yemeni Pregnant Women in Sana’a City
Background. Infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) is still a neonatal life-threatening illness, especially in developing countries such as Yemen. Objective. This study was aimed at determining the vaginal colonization rate and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of GBS among Yemeni pregnant women. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study over a four-month period involving 210 pregnant women at the 35th to 39th gestational weeks who visited Gaza medical center in Sana’a city, Yemen. The collected vaginal swab specimen was inoculated in the Todd-Hewitt enrichment broth and incubated for 24 h and then subcultured on a 5% human blood agar plate. All positive cultures identified as GBS were subjected to antibiotic susceptibility tests using the disk diffusion method. Results. Out of 210 recruited pregnant women, 23 (10.95%) were GBS vaginal carriers. All GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin, ampicillin, levofloxacin, cefotaxime, and vancomycin. Conclusion. Based on the study’s results, approximately eleven out of every 100 pregnant women in Sana’a city are vaginally colonized by GBS. Beta-lactam antibiotics remain the drug of choice to treat and prevent GBS infections. A prenatal screening policy is urgently needed for Yemeni pregnant women.