Novel Thioethers of Dihydroartemisinin Exhibiting Their Biological ActivitiesRead the full article
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Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, and Biological Activities of Some Metal Complexes Bearing an Unsymmetrical Salen-Type Ligand, (Z)-1-(((2-((E)-(2-Hydroxy-6-methoxybenzylidene)amino)phenyl)amino) methylene) Naphthalen-2(1H)-one
An unsymmetrical salen-type Schiff base ligand, (Z)-1-(((2-((E)-(2-hydroxy-6-methoxybenzylidene)amino)phenyl)amino)methylene)naphthalen-2(1H)-one, and its Zn(II), Cu(II), Co(II), Mn(II), and Fe(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized by mass (MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), infrared (IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectra, and effective magnetic moments. The thermal analyses of the obtained ligand and metal complexes were conducted by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Antimicrobial activity of the unsymmetrical Schiff base ligand and its metal complexes were examined for Staphylococcus aureus as Gram-positive bacteria and Escherichia coli as Gram-negative bacteria. In vitro anticancer property of synthetic compounds was estimated against human cancer cell lines, a subline of Hela tumor cell line (KB), and a human liver cancer cell line (HepG-2) as well.
Synthesized Phosphonium Compounds Demonstrate Resistant Modulatory and Antibiofilm Formation Activities against Some Pathogenic Bacteria
A library of six compounds with new hybrids in a single molecule triazole ring attached to the phosphonium salts was synthesized. Click chemistry was, however, used to synthesize the 1-, 2-, and 3-triazole intermediates as a tether for the hybrid phosphonium salts. Their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis), Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and Mycobacterium smegmatis mc2155 was determined using the HT-SPOTi assay. Compound 2 showed the most effective antimicrobial activity as it inhibited the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus at 0.0125 µg/mL and 31.25 µg/mL, respectively. From the FICI data, compounds 2ET-TOL (2) and RABYL-TOL (4) successfully modulated the activities of amoxicillin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. All the test compounds exhibited a concentration-dependent biofilm formation inhibition against S. aureus, except P-Z (compound 6). Compounds P-MEOXY (1) and 2ET-TOL (2) exhibited mild activity against P. aeruginosa with compound 4 showing antimycobacterial activity at 500 µg/mL.
Synthesis, Structure, and Antifungal Activities of 3-(Difluoromethyl)-Pyrazole-4-Carboxylic Oxime Ester Derivatives
Fifteen new pyrazole-4-carboxylic oxime ester derivatives were conveniently synthesized, and their structures were confirmed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HRMS, and X-ray diffraction. Antifungal assays indicated that some of these compounds possessed good activity against S. sclerotiorum, B. cinerea, R. solani, P. oryae, and P. piricola at 50 ppm. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) were studied by molecular docking simulation.
Isolation, Synthesis, and Fungicidal Activity of Isopropyl (3-methyl-1-oxo-1-((1-((4-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)phenyl)thio)propan-2-yl)amino)butan-2-yl)carbamate Diastereomers against Phytophthora capsici
Two isopropyl (3-methyl-1-oxo-1-((1-((4-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)phenyl)thio)propan-2-yl)amino)butan-2-yl)carbamate diastereomers were isolated. Fungicidal activities indicated that the isolated four chiral compounds possessed excellent activity against P. capsici with the EC50 value of 4a (1.30 μg/mL), 4b (0.078 μg/mL), 4c (1.85 μg/mL), and 4d (44.4 μg/mL). Among them, compound 4b exhibited remarkably high activities against Phytophthora capsici, which is better than that of positive control dimethomorph. Its R and S isomers showed that chiral influences the activity against P. capsici.
Triazoles Synthesis & Applications as Nonsteroidal Aromatase Inhibitors for Hormone-Dependent Breast Cancer Treatment
In the last few years, nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors (AIs) have been emerged as promising agents for treating hormone-dependent breast cancer in postmenopausal women because of their inhibitory effect on estrogen synthesis. Indeed, these compounds can block the activity of aromatase, the enzyme that intervenes in the last steps of estrogen production pathway. Triazoles are the core structures of nonsteroidal AIs. The nitrogen atom of the triazole moiety plays a fundamental role in the aromatase functionality by interacting with the iron ions of the heme group. In general, AIs possess numerous advantages as they quench the last step of estrogen synthesis without any inhibitory effects on the production of other steroids produced via the same pathway. Some AIs as anastrozole, letrozole, and vorozole have already been approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the treatment of breast cancer. The previously mentioned compounds present severe and adverse effects as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), resistance onset on long-term treatments, and a higher risk of bone fractures. This review focuses intensively on the role of AIs in the treatment of hormone-sensitive types of cancers, especially the role of triazoles as nonsteroidal AIs. Also, the review provides an overview about the chemistry of triazoles along with the different methods by which the -triazoles and s-triazoles are synthesized.
Reexamining Povarov Reaction’s Scope and Limitation in the Generation of HCV-NS4A Peptidomimetics
Chronic Hepatitis C is a global health threat and a silent killer. Regardless of the profound progress in preventing and treating this disease, research continues to discover new direct antiviral agents (DAAs), especially against novel targets. Our research has been directed to leverage the NS4A binding site to develop peptidomimetic inhibitors of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease. In previous reports, we could provide evidence of tunability of this site by peptide and nonpeptide NS3/4A inhibitors. In this report, we used structure-based techniques to design 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1,7-naphthyridine derivative as NS4A core mimics that cover the region between residues Ile-25′ to Arg-28′. The synthetic plan featured the Povarov reaction as an efficient strategy to construct the 1,7-naphthyridine core. Although this reaction has been reported in many literatures, critical assessments for its scope and limitations are scarce. In our work, we found that Povarov was extremely sensitive to alkene and aldehyde reactants. Moreover, using pyridine amines was not as successful as anilines. The most striking results were the lack of stability of compounds during purification and storage. The four compounds that survived the stability problems (1a-1d) did not show significant binding potency with NS3, because their structures were too simple to resemble the originally planned compounds.