Clinical Distribution Characteristics and Identification for Significant Liver Inflammation of Patients in Chronic Hepatitis B with Indeterminate PhaseRead the full article
Gastroenterology Research and Practice provides a forum for researchers and clinicians working in the areas of gastroenterology, hepatology, pancreas and biliary, and related cancers.
Chief Editor, Dr Kahaleh’s research is focused on interventional endoscopy and the use of new devices to diagnose and treat biliary and pancreatic diseases primarily focusing on preventing and treating complications of advanced endoscopic procedures.
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Technical Review on Endoscopic Treatment Devices for Management of Upper Gastrointestinal Postsurgical Leaks
Upper gastrointestinal postsurgical leaks are challenging to manage and often require radiological, endoscopic, or surgical intervention. Nowadays, endoscopy is considered the first-line approach for their management, however, there is no definite consensus on the most appropriate therapeutic approach. There is a wide diversity of endoscopic options, from close-cover-divert approaches to active or passive internal drainage approaches. Theoretically, all these options can be used alone or with a multimodality approach, as each of them has different mechanisms of action. The approach to postsurgical leaks should always be tailored to each patient, taking into account the several variables that may influence the final outcome. In this review, we discuss the important developments in endoscopic devices for the treatment of postsurgical leaks. Our discussion specifically focuses on principles and mechanism of action, advantages and disadvantages of each technique, indications, clinical success, and adverse events. An algorithm for endoscopic approach is proposed.
Comparison of Gastric Cancer Risk Classifications Using Conventional and New Pepsinogen Criteria
Background. New serum pepsinogen (PG) criteria have been shown to indicate more accurately infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). We sought to improve risk classification for gastric cancer by adopting the new PG criteria with the addition of an H. pylori antibody test. Methods. The study participants were 275 patients with gastric cancer and 275 apparently healthy controls from case–control study data. We cross-sectionally compared the results of gastric cancer risk classifications that were based on a combination of the new PG criteria (PG II ≥ 10 ng/mL or PG I/II ≤ 5) and an H. pylori antibody test with those that were based on a combination of the conventional criteria (PG I ≤ 70 ng/mL and PG I/PG II ≤ 3) and an H. pylori antibody test. Results. Applying the conventional criteria resulted in 89 controls being classified as low risk. Applying the new criteria resulted in 23 controls (bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 14, 32) being additionally classified as high risk. Eight patients with gastric cancer were classified as low risk using the conventional criteria; however, six of these patients were classified as high risk by the new criteria (bootstrapped 95% CI: 2, 11). Conclusions. Compared with the conventional criteria, the new PG criteria with H. pylori antibody reduced instances of gastric cancer cases being misclassified as low risk. These findings suggest that the new PG criteria may help identify individuals at high risk of developing gastric cancer.
Acupuncture Improved the Function of the Lower Esophageal Sphincter and Esophageal Motility in Chinese Patients with Refractory Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms: A Randomized Trial
Objectives. Acupuncture is therapeutic for refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease by an unclear mechanism. This study was aimed at investigating the effect of acupuncture on esophageal motility in patients with symptoms of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease. Methods. Sixty-eight patients with refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms were prospectively enrolled from August 2014 to December 2018 and randomized into acupuncture and control groups ( and 35, respectively). The acupuncture group received acupuncture, and the control group received sham acupuncture. Pre- and post-acupuncture high-resolution manometry was performed to evaluate the effect of acupuncture on esophageal motility. The GerdQ questionnaire was used to evaluate the pre- and post-intervention symptoms. Results. After acupuncture, there was a significant increase in the length of lower esophageal sphincter ( cm vs. cm), length of intra-abdominal lower esophageal sphincter ( cm vs. cm), and mean basal pressure of lower esophageal sphincter ( mmHg vs. mmHg) in the acupuncture group (); moreover, the numbers of fragmented contraction and ineffective contraction decreased from 36 to 12 () and 43 to 18 (), respectively, in the acupuncture group. However, no significant difference was observed in the control group. The GerdQ score decreased significantly from to points in the first week after acupuncture (). Conclusions. Acupuncture, which improves esophageal motility, has short-term efficacy in patients with symptoms of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease. This trial is registered with Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR1800019646).
Risk of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease: The Link between Gut, Heart, and Kidneys
Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) have a five times higher risk of gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) and mortality than the general population. Aortic stenosis (AS) has been associated with GIB from intestinal angiodysplasia. In this retrospective analysis, we obtained data from the 2012 and 2019 National Inpatient Sample. The primary outcome of interest was all-cause in-hospital mortality and risk factors of mortality in patients with ESRD with GIB with aortic valve disorders especially AS. We identified all patients (≥18 years of age) with ESRD () and analyzed based on discharge diagnosis of valvular heart disease () in patients with GIB compared with those without GIB (). Survey statistical methods accounting for strata and weighted data were used for analysis using survey packages in R (version 4.0). Baseline categorical data were compared using Rao-Scott chi square test, and continuous data were compared using Student’s t-test. Covariates were assessed using univariate regression analysis, and factors with value less than 0.1 in the univariate analysis were entered in the final model. The univariate and multivariable associations of presumed risk factors of mortality in ESRD with GIB patients were performed by Cox proportional hazards model censored at length of stay. Propensity score matching was done using MatchIt package in R (version 4.3.0). 1 : 1 nearest neighbour matching was done with propensity scores estimated through logistic regression, in which occurrence of GIB, valvular lesions, and AS was regressed according to other patient characteristics. Among patients with ESRD with valvular heart diseases, AS was found to be associated with increased risk of GIB (; 95% CI 1.003–1.008; ). ESRD patients with AS showed increased risk of lower GIB (; 95% CI 1.01–1.06; ), colonic angiodysplasia (; 95% CI 1.01–1.05; ), stomach and duodenal angiodysplasia (; 95% CI 1.02–1.06; ), need for blood transfusion add pressors as compared to those without AS. However, there was no increased risk of mortality (; 95% CI 0.95–0.99; ).
Artificial Intelligence in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Endoscopy: Advanced Development and New Horizons
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex chronic immune disease with two subtypes: Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Considering the differences in pathogenesis, etiology, clinical presentation, and response to therapy among patients, gastroenterologists mainly rely on endoscopy to diagnose and treat IBD during clinical practice. However, as exemplified by the increasingly comprehensive ulcerative colitis endoscopic scoring system, the endoscopic diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of IBD still rely on the subjective manipulation and judgment of endoscopists. In recent years, the use of artificial intelligence (AI) has grown substantially in various medical fields, and an increasing number of studies have investigated the use of this emerging technology in the field of gastroenterology. Clinical applications of AI have focused on IBD pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis, and patient prognosis. Large-scale datasets offer tremendous utility in the development of novel tools to address the unmet clinical and practice needs for treating patients with IBD. However, significant differences among AI methodologies, datasets, and clinical findings limit the incorporation of AI technology into clinical practice. In this review, we discuss practical AI applications in the diagnosis of IBD via gastroenteroscopy and speculate regarding a future in which AI technology provides value for the diagnosis and treatment of IBD patients.
Endoscopic Screening for Missed Lesions of Synchronous Multiple Early Gastric Cancer during Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection
Aims. To evaluate the value of endoscopic screening during endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) in the detection of synchronous multiple early gastric cancer (SMEGC) and the risk factors for missed diagnosis of SMEGC. Methods. We conducted gastric endoscopic screening during ESD operation in 271 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) referred for ESD, and endoscopic follow-up within 1 year after the operation. The detection and characteristics of SMEGC were analyzed in three stages: before ESD, during ESD operation, and within 1 year after ESD. Results. SMEGC was detected in 37 of 271 patients (13.6%). Among them, 21 patients with SMEGC (56.8%) were diagnosed before ESD, 9 (24.3%) were diagnosed with SMEGC by endoscopic screening during ESD operation, and 7 (18.9%) were found to have EGC lesions in the stomach during postoperative endoscopic follow-up within 1 year. The preoperative missed detection rate of SMEGC was 43.2%, and the rate of missed detection could be reduced by 24.3% (9/37) with endoscopic screening during ESD operation. Missed SMEGC lesions were more common in flat or depressed type and smaller in size than the lesions found before ESD. The presence of severe atrophic gastritis and age ≥60 years were significantly correlated with SMEGC (), while multivariate analysis showed that age ≥60 years was an independent risk factor (OR = 2.63, ) for SMEGC. Conclusions. SMEGC lesions are apt to be missed endoscopically. Special attention should be paid to small, depressed, or flat lesions in detecting SMEGC, especially in elderly patients or (and) patients with severe atrophic gastritis. Endoscopic screening during ESD operation can effectively reduce the missed diagnosis rate of SMEGC.