Antiproliferative, Antiangiogenic, and Antimigrastatic Effects of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz Extract on Breast Cancer CellRead the full article
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine seeks to apply scientific rigor to the study of complementary and alternative medicine, emphasizing on health outcome, while documenting biological mechanisms of action.
Chief Editor, Jian-Li Gao works as research professorship at the Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, China. Her research focuses on hypertension and oncology, as well as evidence-based use of Traditional Chinese Medicine in reducing the side effects of conventional cancer treatments.
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The Aqueous Extract of Sclerocarya birrea, Nauclea latifolia, and Piper longum Mixture Protects Striatal Neurons and Movement-Associated Functionalities in a Rat Model of Diabetes-Induced Locomotion Dysfunction
Among the many complications of type 2 diabetes (T2D), locomotor disorders have been poorly studied and understood. Therefore, no disease-modifying treatment is usually considered. The study aimed to investigate the effect of the aqueous extract of Sclerocarya birrea, Nauclea latifolia, and Piper longum (SNP) mixture on locomotor activity in fructose/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. T2D was induced by 10% fructose orally (6 weeks) and streptozotocin (STZ, 35 mg/kg, i.v.) in 25 male rats. Diabetic animals received distilled water, metformin (200 mg/kg), or the aqueous extract of the SNP mixture (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg). A 10-minute open field test was performed in diabetic rats (glycemia: 126 and 350 mg/dL) to assess locomotor activity before and after treatment. A group of 5 normal rats (NC) served as controls throughout the study. Rats were sacrificed, and the striatum was removed for biochemical and histological studies. In untreated diabetic rats, fructose/STZ administration resulted in hyperglycemia that altered locomotor function as characterized by increased freezing time, decreased mobility time, number of lines crossed, and total travel time compared to NC. MDA, TNF-α, INF-γ, and nitrite levels were elevated in the striatum of diabetic rats, while catalase activity and GSH levels were decreased, indicating oxidative stress and neuroinflammatory changes. In untreated diabetic rats, the microstructure of the HE-stained striatum revealed lipid vacuolation (hydropic degeneration) of the parenchyma, indicating a loss of neuronal integrity. The locomotor dysfunction was significantly improved by the aqueous extract of the SNP mixture, both biochemically and histologically. As a result, our findings support the mixture’s ability to correct diabetes-related locomotion disorders as a glucose-lowering product and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective agent. These results justify the use of the aqueous extract of a combination of these three plants to manage diabetes and neuroinflammatory complications in Northern Cameroon.
Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial Effects of Eucalyptus spp. Essential Oils: A Potential Valuable Use for an Industry Byproduct
In Brazil, the use of Eucalyptus is focused on the production of wood or pulp for the paper industry but without any general recovery of waste, with leaves and branches being left on the ground. One possibility is to use these residues as raw materials in the production of industrially relevant and value-added compounds such as essential oil. The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemical composition, yield, anti-inflammatory/antinociceptive activities, and acute toxicity in mice, as well as the antimicrobial effects of essential oils from the leaves of 7 varieties of Eucalyptus and hybrids against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans. The extraction of oils was carried out using hydrodistillation, and they were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Urocam and Grancam were the plants that obtained the highest oil yield, with yields of 3.32 and 2.30%, respectively. The main chemical components identified in these plants were 1.8 cineole and α-pinene. The antinociceptive effect of the 7 oils (50 mg/kg, p.o.) was initially assessed in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. In this assay, a significant ( < 0.05) antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory effect was observed from 4 tested essential oils (E. benthamii, E. saligna, and the hybrids Urocam and Grancam) when compared to the vehicle-treated group. This effect was then confirmed in the formalin-induced paw licking test. No toxicological effects or alterations were observed in motor coordination after the administration of the studied oils to the animals. In the antimicrobial evaluation, the seven essential oils inhibited the growth of S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans at different concentrations. Collectively, these results demonstrate that the essential oil from the leaves and branches of Eucalyptus species and varieties present potential biomedical applications and represent a source of antimicrobial and/or anti-inflammatory compounds.
Chromolaena odorata (L.) R. M. King and H. Robinson Leaves Aqueous Extract Improves the Femoral Head in Ethanol-Induced Osteonecrosis in Rats
Chronic alcohol consumption damages bone formation and causes bone pathology, including osteonecrosis of the femoral head. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of the leaf aqueous extract of Chromolaena odorata (C. odorata) on the femoral head in ethanol-induced osteonecrosis in rats. Animals received alcohol (40°) at 3 g/kg for 12 weeks. A group of animals were sacrificed to attest to the instalment of osteonecrosis by using histopathological analysis. The remaining animals received alcohol concomitantly with the plant extract (150, 300, or 600 mg/kg) or diclofenac (1 mg/kg) for 28 additional days. At the end of the experimental period, biochemical parameters including total cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase activities were measured. Histopathological and histomorphometry analyses of femurs were also assessed. The administration of alcohol, irrespective of the experimental period, induced a significant increase in total cholesterol and triglyceride and a decrease in ALP and calcium (–) levels. Intoxicated animals showed an alteration in oxidative stress parameters accompanied by a significant drop in bone cortical thickness and density with necrosis and marked bone resorption. The concomitant administration of the plant with ethanol reversed the alcohol-induced bone defect, characterized by the improvement of the lipid profile , bone calcium concentration , bone ALP activity , oxidative stress parameters, improved cortical bone thickness , and bone density . These results are supported by the absence of bone resorption with an obvious effect at a dose of 300 mg/kg. The pharmacological effect of the extract on ethanol-induced osteonecrosis of the femoral head is probably due to its osteogenic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant properties, justifying its use in Cameroonian folk medicine for articulation and bone pain management.
Assessment of Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices of Traditional Healers toward Dosage Forms and Routes of Administration: A Cross-Sectional Study in Ethiopia
Background and Objectives. Traditional healers are an integral part of healthcare systems in many countries, including Ethiopia, where traditional medicine is widely practiced. They often employ unique medicinal preparation and route of administration that may differ from modern practices. However, there is a paucity of data on dosage forms and route of administration practice by traditional healers in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of traditional healers towards different dosage forms and route of administration. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was conducted on 70 traditional healers from June 1, 2022 to July 25, 2022. The data were collected through structured questionnaires. The data were checked for completeness and consistency and then entered into SPSS version 25.0 for analysis. The results were presented with frequencies and percentages. The association between sociodemographic factors and traditional healers’ knowledge of dosage forms and route of administration was determined using the Pearson’s chi-squares test. A statistically significant difference was declared if the value was 0.05 or lower. Results. Most (58.1%) traditional healers had information on dosage forms, especially about solid, semisolid, and liquid dosage forms. In addition, 33 (53.2%) traditional healers had information about rectal, nasal, and oral route of administration. All traditional healers had practiced different dosage forms and route of administration both individually and in combination earlier to date. More than half of the participants agreed on the need for different dosage forms and route of administration. This study result also showed that most (72.6%) traditional healers had gaps in sharing experiences and information with other healers and health professionals. Conclusions. The current study revealed that solid, semisolid, and liquid were the most frequently formulated dosage forms with oral, rectal, and nasal route of administration by traditional healers. The practice of checking the status of the formulations was poor. Traditional healers had a good attitude towards the need for different dosage forms and route of administration. The stakeholders should provide continuous training and exchange of experiences between traditional healers and healthcare professionals to improve the knowledge of traditional healers for appropriate use of dosage forms and route of administration.
An Ethnobotanical Study of Wild Edible Plants in Tach Gayint District, South Gondar Zone, Amhara Region, Northwestern Ethiopia
The purpose of this study was to carry out an ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological investigation on wild edible plants and their value to households in the Tach Gayint district of South Gondar Zone of northwestern Ethiopia. A total of 175 informants (56 women and 119 males) were interviewed for ethnobotanical data, and 25 of them were key informants. Data collection techniques included semistructured interviews, guided field walks, and focus group discussions. Quantitative analytical tools were employed for ethnobotanical methods including preference ranking and direct matrix ranking techniques to analyse the data. 36 species of wild edible plants have been identified in the study area. Of these plant species, shrubs account for 15 (42%), followed by herbs 13 (36%) and trees 8 (22%). Regarding the edible parts, fruits account for 19 (53%) followed by young shoots, leaves, and flowers, 4 (11%) for each. These plant species are eaten raw (86%) or cooked (14%) and most are collected by younger people for herding cattle. According to the preference ranking analysis, the fruit of Opuntia ficus-indica is the most preferred plant species because its sweet taste. Although Cordia africana, the most commonly used multipurpose wild edible plant species, is mostly exploited due to human activity, activities such as the production of charcoal, the gathering of firewood, the construction of homes, and the use of agricultural tools all played a significant role in the plant’s eventual extinction. In the study area, agricultural expansion was the main cause of putting wild edible plants in danger. It is best to cultivate and manage edible plants in a backyard garden and to perform more research on popular edible plant species.
Meta-Analysis of Capecitabine versus 5-Fluorouracil in Advanced Gastric Cancer
Objective. To investigate the effect of capecitabine versus 5-fluorouracil in advanced gastric cancer patients. Methods. We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and other databases from database establishment to June 2022, containing randomized controlled trials (RCT) on capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil in advanced gastric cancer patients. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of capecitabine versus 5-fluorouracil on overall response rate, neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, stomatitis, hand-foot syndrome, nausea and vomiting, alopecia, and diarrhea. Results. Eight RCTs with a total of 1998 patients with advanced gastric cancer were finally included, including 982 with capecitabine and 1016 with 5-fluorouracil. Compared with 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine use was significantly associated with an improved overall response rate in patients (RR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02–1.25, ). Compared with 5-fluorouracil, treatment with capecitabine was significantly associated with decreased neutropenia events (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62–0.99, I2 = 86%, ), and a decreased risk of stomatitis (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64–0.84, I2 = 40%, ) in patients with advanced gastric cancer. In terms of hand-foot syndrome, capecitabine was associated with increased hand-foot syndrome events than 5-fluorouracil (RR 2.00, 95% CI 1.21–3.31, ). In terms of thrombocytopenia, nausea and vomiting, alopecia, and diarrhea, the effect of capecitabine and 5-fluorouracil were similar (). Conclusions. Compared with 5-fluorouracil, capecitabine treatment improves the overall response rate and reduces the risk of neutropenia and stomatitis in advanced gastric cancer patients. It should be noted that capecitabine treatment may also increase the occurrence of hand-foot syndrome. Capecitabine is similar to 5-fluorouracil in causing thrombocytopenia, nausea and vomiting, alopecia, and diarrhea.