Emergency Medicine International has recently been accepted for indexing with Scopus.Go to Table of Contents
Emergency Medicine International publishes original research articles and review articles related to prehospital care, disaster preparedness and response, acute medical and paediatric emergencies, critical care and wound care
Emergency Medicine International maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
Latest ArticlesMore articles
Machine Learning-Based Models for Prediction of Critical Illness at Community, Paramedic, and Hospital Stages
Overcrowding of emergency department (ED) has put a strain on national healthcare systems and adversely affected the clinical outcomes of critically ill patients. Early identification of critically ill patients prior to ED visits can help induce optimal patient flow and allocate medical resources effectively. This study aims to develop ML-based models for predicting critical illness in the community, paramedic, and hospital stages using Korean National Emergency Department Information System (NEDIS) data. Random forest and light gradient boosting machine (LightGBM) were applied to develop predictive models. The predictive model performance based on AUROC in community stage, paramedic stage, and hospital stage was estimated to be 0.870 (95% CI: 0.869–0.871), 0.897 (95% CI: 0.896–0.898), and 0.950 (95% CI: 0.949–0.950) in random forest and 0.877 (95% CI: 0.876–0.878), 0.899 (95% CI: 0.898–0.900), and 0.950 (95% CI: 0.950–0.951) in LightGBM, respectively. The ML models showed high performance in predicting critical illness using variables available at each stage, which can be helpful in guiding patients to appropriate hospitals according to their severity of illness. Furthermore, a simulation model can be developed for proper allocation of limited medical resources.
Progress Report on Interventional Treatment for Bronchopleural Fistula
Objectives. Bronchopleural fistula (BPF) is a serious and life-threatening complication. Following the advent of interventional radiology, subsequent treatment methods for BPF have gradually diversified. Therefore, this article provides an overview of the present scenario of interventional treatment and research advancements pertaining to BPF. Methods. Relevant published studies on the interventional treatment of BPF were identified from the PubMed, Sci-Hub, Google Scholar, CNKI, VIP, and Wanfang databases. The included studies better reflect the current status of and progress in interventional treatments for BPF with representativeness, reliability, and timeliness. Studies with similar and repetitive conclusions were excluded. Results. There are many different interventional treatments for BPF that can be applied in cases of BPF with different fistula diameters. Conclusion. The application of interventional procedures for bronchopleural fistula has proven to be safe, efficacious, and minimally invasive. However, the establishment of comprehensive, standardized treatment guidelines necessitates further pertinent research to attain consensus within the medical community. The evolution of novel technologies, tools, techniques, and materials specifically tailored to the interventional management of bronchopleural fistula is anticipated to be the focal point of forthcoming investigations. These advancements present promising prospects for seamless translation into clinical practice and application, thereby potentially revolutionizing patient care in this field.
Association between Changes in Plasma Metabolism and Clinical Outcomes of Sepsis
Current prognostic biomarkers for sepsis have limited sensitivity and specificity. This study aimed to investigate dynamic lipid metabolomics and their association with septic immune response and clinical outcomes of sepsis. This prospective cohort study included patients with sepsis who met the Sepsis 3.0 criteria. On hospitalization days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7), plasma samples were collected, and patients underwent liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, 24 (60%) of whom were men. The median age of the enrolled patients was 81 (68–84) years. Thirty-one (77.5%) patients had a primary infection site of the lung. Participants were allocated to the survivor (25 cases) and nonsurvivor (15 cases) groups based on their 28-day survival status. Ultimately, a total of 113 lipids were detected in plasma samples on D 1 and D 7, of which 42 lipids were most abundant in plasma samples. The nonsurvival group had significantly lower lipid expression levels in lysophosphatidylcholine (LysoPC) (16 : 0, 17 : 0,18 : 0) and 18 : 1 SM than those in the survival group () on D7–D1. The correlation analysis showed that D7–D1 16 : 0 LysoPC (r = 0.367, ),17 : 0 LysoPC (r = 0.389, ) and 18 : 0 LysoPC(r = 0.472, ) levels were positively correlated with the percentage of CD3+ T cell in the D7–D1. Plasma LysoPC and SM changes may serve as prognostic biomarkers for sepsis, and lipid metabolism may play a role in septic immune disturbances.
Association of Chest Anteroposterior Radiography with Computed Tomography in Patients with Blunt Chest Trauma
Background. In cases of chest trauma, computed tomography (CT) can be used alongside chest anteroposterior (AP) radiography and physical examination during initial evaluation. Performing a CT scan may be difficult if a patient has unstable vital signs. In contrast, radiography may not always reliably diagnose nonmarked pneumothorax or extensive subcutaneous emphysema. Objectives. This study aimed to determine the agreement between chest radiography and CT findings in patients with blunt chest trauma. The study also aimed to determine the occurrence of occult pneumothorax and clarify the proportion of subcutaneous emphysema and pneumothorax detected through radiography and CT, respectively. Methods. We included patients (n = 1284) with chest trauma who were admitted to the emergency room of a tertiary hospital between January 2015 and June 2022. We excluded patients aged <18 years, those with stab injury, those without radiography and CT findings, and patients who required iatrogenic intervention, such as chest tube insertion, before imaging. We recorded age, sex, trauma mechanism, and Abbreviated Injury Scale score for each patient. From radiography and CT scans, we recorded the presence of rib fracture, subcutaneous emphysema, lung contusion, pneumothorax, and pneumomediastinum. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were calculated to assess the reliability of radiography as a predictor of CT-based diagnosis. Results. Radiography exhibited a specificity of nearly 100% for all items. In most cases, findings that could not be confirmed by CT were not evident on radiographs. The incidence of occult pneumothorax was 87.3%. When subcutaneous emphysema was observed on radiography, CT findings indicated pneumothorax in 96.7% of cases. Conclusions. In situations where the patient’s vital signs are unstable and performing a CT scan is not feasible, the presence of subcutaneous emphysema on radiography may indicate the need for chest decompression, even if pneumothorax is not observed.
Patient Involvement in Decisions regarding Emergency Department Discharge: A Multimethod Study
Background. Unmet care needs and more than one reasonable discharge solution have been identified among patients in the emergency department. Less than half of the patients attending emergency care have reported being involved in decisions to the degree they have wanted. Having a person-centered approach, such as involving patients in decisions regarding their discharge, has been reported as being associated with beneficial outcomes for the patient. Aim. The aim of the study was to explore the extent of patients’ involvement in discharge planning in acute care and how patient involvement in decisions regarding discharge planning is managed in clinical practice. Methods. A multimethod study, including both quantitative and qualitative data, was carried out. The quantitative part included a descriptive and comparative analysis of additional data from the patient’s medical records and patient’s responses to the CollaboRATE questionnaire. The qualitative part included a content analysis of notes from field studies of interactions between healthcare professionals and patients. Results. A total of 615 patients from an emergency department at a medium-sized hospital completed the questionnaire. Roughly, a third gave top-box scores (36%), indicating optimal involvement in decisions. Two factors, being discharged home and not readmitted, were significantly associated with the experience of being involved. In clinical practice, there was a focus on symptoms, and diagnostic tools and choice of treatment were decisive for the further care trajectory of the patients. Speed and low continuity left limited opportunities for dialogue to uncover patients’ preferences. At the same time, the patients did not expect to be involved. Conclusions. Two out of three patients did not experience being involved in decisions regarding emergency department discharge. The interactions reflected an organizational structure in which the conditions for patient involvement were limited. Uncovering opportunities and initiatives to increase the number of patients who experience being involved in decisions is important tasks for the future.
The Addition of the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index to the Prognostic Scoring Systems Did Not Improve Mortality Prediction in Trauma Patients in the Intensive Care Unit
Background. Malnutrition is prevalent among critically ill patients and has been associated with a poor prognosis. This study sought to determine whether the addition of a nutritional indicator to the various variables of prognostic scoring models can improve the prediction of mortality among trauma patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Methods. This study’s cohort included 1,126 trauma patients hospitalized in the ICU between January 1, 2018, and December 31, 2021. Two nutritional indicators, the prognostic nutrition index (PNI), a calculation based on the serum albumin concentration and peripheral blood lymphocyte count, and the geriatric nutritional risk index (GNRI), a calculation based on the serum albumin concentration and the ratio of current body weight to ideal body weight, were examined for their association with the mortality outcome. The significant nutritional indicator was served as an additional variable in prognostic scoring models of the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS), the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II), and the mortality prediction models (MPM II) at admission, 24, 48, and 72 h in the mortality outcome prediction. The predictive performance was determined by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that GNRI (OR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.96–0.99; ), but not PNI (OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.97–1.02; ), was independent risk factor for mortality. However, none of these predictive scoring models showed a significant improvement in prediction when the GNRI variable is incorporated. Conclusions. The addition of GNRI as a variable to the prognostic scoring models did not significantly enhance the performance of the predictors.