Comparison of Two Frailty Assessment Methods and Their Association with Functionality in Subjects with Exacerbation of COPDRead the full article
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Prevalence and Factors Associated with Impairment in Intrinsic Capacity among Community-Dwelling Older Adults: An Observational Study from South India
Background. Intrinsic capacity (IC) is conceptualized by World Health Organization (WHO) with a focus on healthy aging. Identifying impairment could help in making a person-centred plan for the care of older adults. Objectives. Establish the prevalence of IC among community-dwelling older adults age >60, the prevalence of impairment in each domain, and identify factors associated with an impairment in IC. Methods. This cross-sectional observational study in the community setting included 1000 older adults aged 60 years and above in two-year study period. The 6 domains of IC including cognition, locomotor capacity, psychological, vitality, hearing, and vision were derived from the comprehensive geriatric assessment. The IC composite score was calculated based on these domains, and a higher IC score indicated greater IC. Results. During the study period, 1000 older adults, with the median age of 66.5 (IQR-63-73) were included, and 629 (62.9%) were women. Only in 157 (15.7%) community-dwelling older adults, all 6 domains were intact. Impairment in one, two, and three domains was seen in 442 (42.2%), 305 (30.5%), and 91 (9.1%), respectively. The most prevalent impaired domain was locomotor (593, 59.3%), followed by vision (441, 44.1%), hearing (193, 19.3%), cognition (106, 10.6%), mood (38, 3.8%), and vitality (37, 3.7%). The factors associated with lower IC included increasing age (β-coefficient −0.01, 95% CI: −0.02 to −0.01, value = 0.002), impaired activities of daily living (β-coefficient −0.13, 95% CI: −0.49 to −0.18, value <0.001), and chronic neurologic illness (β-coefficient −0.10, 95% CI: −0.77 to −0.18, value = 0.001). Conclusions. In conclusion, we found that impairment in IC was frequent in community-dwelling older adults, and it is associated with age, presence of chronic neurologic illness, and declining functionality. The adoption of IC should be seen as an opportunity to disseminate geriatric care in our healthcare systems which lack the necessary attention to the needs of older persons.
Functional Aging: Integrating Functionality to a Multidimensional Assessment of Healthy Aging
Worldwide, the number of old adults will peak in the coming decades. Relying solely on the chronological age to make treatment decisions and shape general or specific societal and medical considerations may reinforce ageism and lead to flawed reasoning. Defining physiological age using biological markers is not yet reliable, and an approach based on comorbidities without considering their impact on quality of life is inadequate. A multidimensional approach with strong integration of functionality is presented here to draw a real-world aging approach, easily accessible, clinically relevant, and of societal value.
The Parallel Mediation Effects of Depression, Well-Being, and Social Activity on Physical Performance and Frailty in Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older People
Background. Frailty refers to a decline in an elderly person’s physical, psychological, and social functioning, making them sensitive to stressors. Because frailty is caused by a variety of factors, including certain demographic characteristics, understanding the mediating factors that affect frailty in the elderly is critical. Purpose. To provide evidence about the relationship between depression, well-being, social activity, physical performance, and frailty among older adults. Materials and Methods. The study used secondary data from Taiwan’s Long-term Study of Aging (n = 7,622), excluding people with severe dementia. The chi-square test and Spearmen’s coefficient correlation were used to assess the relationship between the demographic variables and frailty. Nonparametric bootstrapping analysis was used to test whether depression, well-being, and social activity are parallel mediators of the relationship between physical performance and frailty. This study was approved by Fu Jen Catholic University (FJU-IRB No. C110040). Results. The overall frailty prevalence was 13.9%. We calculated a mean score and standard deviation for each measurement in this study. The correlation found low-to-moderate positive and negative statistically significant correlations between the variables. A significant, moderately negative relationship was found between physical performance and frailty that correlated with three potential mediating factors. The path indicated that lower physical performance scores and higher depression scores are more likely to be associated with frailty. Conclusion. Older adults who are depressed are more likely to become frail. Adults who are more socially active and report greater well-being are less likely to become frail. Therefore, further research should design and test a comprehensive intervention for older adults in community settings that addresses all three factors, aimed at increasing well-being and social activity while also treating depression.
Assessing Frailty in the General Medical Clinic of a Tertiary Hospital in Northern Malaysia: The FRAIL Scale or the Clinical Frailty Scale
Background. Frailty potentially influences clinicians’ decision making on treatment provided they can select the appropriate assessment tools. This study aims to investigate the difference between the FRAIL scale and the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) in assessing frailty among community-dwelling older adults attending the General Medical Clinic (GMC) in Seberang Jaya Hospital, Penang, Malaysia. Methods. The medical records of 95 older patients (age ≥ 65) who attended the GMC from 16 December 2019 to 10 January 2020 were reviewed. Frailty was identified using the FRAIL scale and the CFS. Patient characteristics were investigated for their association with frailty and their difference in the prevalence of frailty by the FRAIL scale and CFS. Results. The CFS identified nonsignificant higher prevalence of frailty compared to the FRAIL scale (21/95; 22.1% vs. 17/95; 17.9%, ratio of prevalence = 1.235, ). Minimal agreement was found between the FRAIL scale and the CFS (Kappa = 0.272, ). Three out of 5 components of the FRAIL scale (resistance, ambulation, and loss of weight) were associated with frailty by the CFS. Higher prevalence of frailty was identified by the CFS in those above 70 years of age. The FRAIL scale identified more patients with frailty in ischaemic heart disease patients. Conclusion. Patient characteristics influenced the choice of the frailty assessment tool. The FRAIL scale and the CFS may complement each other in providing optimized care to older patients who attended the GMC.
Determination of Cutoff Values for the Screening of Osteosarcopenia in Obese Postmenopausal Women
Osteosarcopenic obesity (OSO) describes the concurrent presence of obesity, low bone mass, and low muscle mass in an individual. Currently, no established criteria exist to diagnose OSO. We hypothesized that obese individuals require different cut-points from standard cut-points to define low bone mass and low muscle mass due to their higher weight load. In this study, we determined cutoff values for the screening of osteosarcopenia (OS) in obese postmenopausal Malaysian women based on the measurements of quantitative ultrasound (QUS), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and functional performance test. Then, we compared the cutoff values derived by 3 different statistical modeling methods, (1) receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, (2) lowest quintile of the study population, and (3) 2 standard deviations (SD) below the mean value of a young reference group, and discussed the most suitable method to screen for the presence of OS in obese population. One hundred and forty-one (n = 141) postmenopausal Malaysian women participated in the study. Bone density was assessed using calcaneal quantitative ultrasound. Body composition was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analyzer. Handgrip strength was assessed using a handgrip dynamometer, and physical performance was assessed using a modified Short Physical Performance Battery test. ROC curve was determined to be the most suitable statistical modeling method to derive the cutoffs for the presence of OS in obese population. From the ROC curve method, the final model to estimate the probability of OS in obese postmenopausal women is comprised of five variables: handgrip strength (HGS, with area under the curve (AUC) = 0.698 and threshold ≤ 16.5 kg), skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI, AUC = 0.966 and threshold ≤ 8.2 kg/m2), fat-free mass index (FFMI, AUC = 0.946 and threshold ≤ 15.2 kg/m2), broadband ultrasonic attenuation (BUA, AUC = 0.987 and threshold ≤ 52.85 dB/MHz), and speed of sound (SOS, AUC = 0.991 and threshold ≤ 1492.15 m/s). Portable equipment may be used to screen for OS in obese women. Early identification of OS can help lower the risk of advanced functional impairment that can lead to physical disability in obese postmenopausal women.
Postural Changes on Heart Rate Variability among Older Population: A Preliminary Study
Objective. This study aims to investigate an association between body postures and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses through analysis of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) data obtained through electrocardiography. Methods. Forty older individuals were recruited to form the sample. HRV measurements were taken in three positions—sitting, supine, and standing—and compared. Results. Results demonstrated statistically significant differences in the HRV parameters used to examine the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), specifically in the measurements obtained from the sitting position and the supine position ( < 0.001 for PNS and = 0.011 for SNS). The differences in these parameters were, however, negligible between the sitting and the standing positions. Moreover, the ANS responses obtained in the sitting position were strongly and positively correlated with those in the standing position (r = 0.854 for PNS and r = 0.794 for SNS). These results suggested that the PNS and SNS parameters obtained while sitting were likely to be affected by orthostatic hypotension in much the same way as those in the standing position, as compared to the supine position. Conclusions. As such, sitting may not be the best position for older individuals in the assessment of their autonomic responses, whereas the supine position is recommended as the baseline posture in the old-age population. These findings are useful for future research in clinical settings that require accuracy in the ANS responses as determined by the HRV measurements.