A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials on Supine vs. Nonsupine Endotracheal IntubationRead the full article
Critical Care Research and Practice publishes articles related to anesthesiology, perioperative and critical care medicine, and the integration of intraoperative management in preparation for postoperative critical care management.
Chief Editor, Dr Thomas J. Esposito, works in the Division of Trauma Surgical Critical Care and Burns at Loyola University Stritch School of Medicine, USA.
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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation to Support COVID-19 Patients: A Propensity-Matched Cohort Study
Background. In patients with severe respiratory failure from COVID-19, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment can facilitate lung-protective ventilation and may improve outcome and survival if conventional therapy fails to assure adequate oxygenation and ventilation. We aimed to perform a confirmatory propensity-matched cohort study comparing the impact of ECMO and maximum invasive mechanical ventilation alone (MVA) on mortality and complications in severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Materials and Methods. All 295 consecutive adult patients with confirmed COVID-19 pneumonia admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) from March 13th, 2020, to July 31st, 2021 were included. At admission, all patients were classified into 3 categories: (1) full code including the initiation of ECMO therapy (AAA code), (2) full code excluding ECMO (AA code), and (3) do-not-intubate (A code). For the 271 non-ECMO patients, match eligibility was determined for all patients with the AAA code treated with MVA. Propensity score matching was performed using a logistic regression model including the following variables: gender, P/F ratio, SOFA score at admission, and date of ICU admission. The primary endpoint was ICU mortality. Results. A total of 24 ECMO patients were propensity matched to an equal number of MVA patients. ICU mortality was significantly higher in the ECMO arm (45.8%) compared with the MVA cohort (16.67%) (OR 4.23 (1.11, 16.17); ). Three-month mortality was 50% with ECMO compared to 16.67% after MVA (OR 5.91 (1.55, 22.58); ). Applied peak inspiratory pressures (33.42 ± 8.52 vs. 24.74 ± 4.86 mmHg; ) and maximal PEEP levels (14.47 ± 3.22 vs. 13.52 ± 3.86 mmHg; ) were higher with MVA. ICU length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS were comparable in both groups. Conclusion. ECMO therapy may be associated with an up to a three-fold increase in ICU mortality and 3-month mortality compared to MVA despite the facilitation of lung-protective ventilation settings in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. We cannot confirm the positive results of the first propensity-matched cohort study on this topic. This trial is registered with NCT05158816.
MRI and the Critical Care Patient: Clinical, Operational, and Financial Challenges
Neuroimaging in conjunction with a neurologic examination has become a valuable resource for today’s intensive care unit (ICU) physicians. Imaging provides critical information during the assessment and ongoing neuromonitoring of patients for toxic-metabolic or structural injury of the brain. A patient’s condition can change rapidly, and interventions may require imaging. When making this determination, the benefit must be weighed against possible risks associated with intrahospital transport. The patient’s condition is assessed to decide if they are stable enough to leave the ICU for an extended period. Intrahospital transport risks include adverse events related to the physical nature of the transport, the change in the environment, or relocating equipment used to monitor the patient. Adverse events can be categorized as minor (e.g., clinical decompensation) or major (e.g., requiring immediate intervention) and may occur in preparation or during transport. Regardless of the type of event experienced, any intervention during transport impacts the patient and may lead to delayed treatment and disruption of critical care. This review summarizes the commentary on the current literature on the associated risks and provides insight into the costs as well as provider experiences. Approximately, one-third of patients who are transported from the ICU to an imaging suite may experience an adverse event. This creates an additional risk for extending a patient’s stay in the ICU. The delay in obtaining imaging can negatively impact the patient’s treatment plan and affect long-term outcomes as increased disability or mortality. Disruption of ICU therapy can decrease respiratory function after the patient returns from transport. Because of the complex care team needed for patient transport, the staff time alone can cost $200 or more. New technologies and advancements are needed to reduce patient risk and improve safety.
Critical Care Nurses’ Adherence to Ethical Codes and Its Association with Spiritual Well-Being and Moral Sensitivity
Background. Adherence to ethical codes is a major pillar of nursing care that is affected by various factors. Identifying these factors can lead to better ethical performance. The present study was conducted to determine critical care nurses’ adherence to ethical codes and its association with spiritual well-being (SWB) and moral sensitivity (MS). Methods. In this descriptive-correlational study, data were collected using the moral sensitivity questionnaire (MSQ) by Lützén et al., Paloutzian and Ellison’s spiritual well-being scale (SWBS), and the adherence to ethical codes questionnaire. The study was conducted on 298 nurses working in critical care units of hospitals affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran in 2019. This study was examined and approved by the Ethics Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Results. The majority of the participants were female (76.2%) and single (60.1%), with a mean age of 30.69 ± 5.74 years. The mean scores of adherence to ethical codes, SWB, and MS were 64.06 (good), 91.94 (moderate), and 134.08 (moderate), respectively. Adherence to ethical codes had a positive correlation with the total score of SWB (, r = 0.25) and MS (, r = 0.27). A positive correlation was also observed between MS and SWB (, r = 0.41). Meanwhile, MS (β = 0.21) had a greater effect than SWB (β = 0.157) on adherence to ethical codes. Conclusion. Critical care nurses showed a good adherence to ethical codes. MS and SWB also positively affected their adherence to ethical codes. Nursing managers can use these findings to devise plans for the promotion of MS and SWB in nurses and thus help improve their ethical performance.
In-ICU Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients in a Reference Cameroonian Intensive Care Unit: A Retrospective Cohort Study
Introduction. Mortality rate amongst critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is disproportionately high in sub-Saharan African countries such as Cameroon. Identifying factors associated with higher in-ICU mortality guides more aggressive resuscitative measures to curb mortality, but the dearth of data on predictors of in-ICU mortality precludes this action. We aimed to determine predictors of in-ICU mortality in a major referral ICU in Cameroon. Methodology. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients admitted to the ICU of Douala Laquintinie Hospital from 1st of March 2021 to 28th February 2022. We performed a multivariable analysis of sociodemographic, vital signs on admission, and other clinical and laboratory variables of patients discharged alive and dead from the ICU to control for confounding factors. Significance level was set at . Results. Overall, the in-ICU mortality rate was 59.4% out of 662 ICU admissions. Factors independently associated with in-ICU mortality were deep coma (aOR = 0.48 (0.23–0.96), 95% CI, ), and hypernatremia (>145 meq/L) (aOR = 0.39 (0.17–0.84) 95% CI, ). Conclusion. The in-ICU mortality rate in this major referral Cameroonian ICU is high. Six in 10 patients admitted to the ICU die. Patients were more likely to die if admitted with deep coma and high sodium levels in the blood.
Impact of Quality Improvement Bundle on Compliance with Resuscitation Guidelines during In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest in Children
Introduction. Various quality improvement (QI) interventions have been individually assessed for the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We aimed to assess the QI bundle (hands-on training and debriefing) for the quality of CPR in our children’s hospital. We hypothesized that the QI bundle improves the quality of CPR in hospitalized children. Methods. We initiated a QI bundle (hands-on training and debriefing) in August 2017. We conducted a before-after analysis comparing the CPR quality during July 2013–May 2017 (before) and January 2018–December 2020 (after). We collected data from the critical events logbook on CPR duration, chest compressions (CC) rate, ventilation rate (VR), the timing of first dose of epinephrine, blood pressure (BP), end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), and vital signs monitoring during CPR. We performed univariate analysis and presented data as the median interquartile range (IQR) and in percentage as appropriate. Results. We compared data from 58 CPR events versus 41 CPR events before and after QI bundle implementation, respectively. The median (IQR) CPR duration for the pre- and post-QI bundle was 5 (1–13) minutes and 3 minutes (1.25–10), and the timing of the first dose of epinephrine was 2 (1-2) minutes and 2 minutes (1–5), respectively. We observed an improvement in compliance with the CC rate (100–120 per minute) from 72% events before versus 100% events after QI bundle implementation (). Similarly, there was a decrease in CC interruptions and hyperventilation rates from 100% to 50% () and 100% vs. 63% () events before vs. after QI bundle implementation, respectively. We also observed improvement in BP monitoring from 36% before versus 60% after QI bundle (). Conclusion. Our QI bundle (hands-on training and debriefing) was associated with improved compliance with high-quality CPR in children.
Mechanical Power in Prone Position Intubated Patients with COVID-19-Related ARDS: A Cohort Study
Background. Respiratory monitoring of mechanical ventilation (MV) is relevant and challenging in COVID-19. Mechanical power (MP) is a novel and promising monitoring tool in acute distress respiratory syndrome (ARDS), representing the amount of energy transferred from the ventilator to the patient. It encompasses several setting parameters and patient-dependent variables that could cause lung injury. MP can therefore be an additional tool in the assessment of these patients. Objective. This study aims to evaluate respiratory monitoring through MP and its relationship with mortality in patients with COVID-19-related ARDS (CARDS) under mechanical ventilation (MV) and prone position (PP) strategies. Methods. Retrospective, unicentric, and cohort studies. We included patients with CARDS under invasive MV and PP strategies. Information regarding MP, ventilation, and gas exchange was collected at 3 moments: (1) prior to the first PP, (2) during the first PP, and (3) during the last PP. We tested the relationship between MP and VR with in-hospital mortality. Results. We included 91 patients. There was a statistically significant difference in MP measurements between survivors and nonsurvivors only in the last prone position (). This is due to the significant increase in MP measurements in nonsurvivors (difference from the baseline: 3.63 J/min; 95% CI: 0.31 to 6.94), which was not observed in the group that survived (difference from the baseline: 0.02 J/min; 95% CI: −2.66 to 2.70). In multivariate analysis, MP () was associated with hospital death when corrected for confounder variables (SAPS 3 score, mechanical ventilation time, age, and number of prone sessions). Conclusions. MP is an independent predictor of mortality in PP patients with CARDS.