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Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A publishes research concerning the applications of magnetic resonance techniques, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).
Concepts in Magnetic Resonance Part A maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors expert and up-to-date in the field of study.
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Effect of Early Nursing Intervention under Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography and Magnetic Resonance Images on Brain Injury in Premature Infants
To investigate the effects of early nursing intervention on brain injury among premature infants, 100 premature infants diagnosed with brain injury were included in the research and randomly divided into the control group (50 cases) and the experimental group (50 cases). The patients in the two groups were performed with the same conventional comprehensive treatment. The patients in the control group received conventional nursing while those in the experimental group underwent early nursing intervention. During follow-up, neurodevelopment, motor behavior, the incidence rate of brain injury, and nursing satisfaction of the infants in the two groups were compared. It was demonstrated that the five neurodevelopment scores of the experimental group were all higher than those of the control group. The differences showed statistical significance (). The total effective rate of motor development of the experimental group reached 94%, while that of the control group amounted to 80%. Obviously, the total effective rate of motor development of the experimental group was higher than that of the control group. The difference was statistically significant (). The nursing satisfaction of the experimental group reached 98%, which was apparently higher than that of the control group (74%). The difference suggested statistical significance (). The rates of brain injury at 1 and 2 years after the birth of the experimental group were 6% and 2%, respectively. The rates of brain injury at 1 and 2 years after the birth of the control group amounted to 18% and 14%, respectively. The rates of brain injury at 1 and 2 years after the birth of the experimental group were lower than those of the control group. The difference revealed statistical significance (). Hence, the early nursing intervention of premature infants with brain injury could promote brain development, improve neurological function, reduce the incidence of brain injury, and achieve an ideal nursing effect.
Multislice B1 Mapping Method Using Magnetic Resonance Composite Spin Echo Sequences and Simultaneous Echo Refocusing
Radiofrequency (RF) transmit field (B1) mapping is a promising method in mitigating the B1 inhomogeneity in various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) applications. Although several phase- or magnitude-based B1 mapping methods have been proposed, these methods often require complex modeling, long acquisition time, or specialized MRI sequences. A recently introduced simultaneous echo refocusing (SER) technique can be applied in the B1 mapping method to extend the three-dimensional (3D) spatial coverage only without long data acquisition. Therefore, in this study, a multislice B1 mapping method using composite spin echo sequences and SER techniques is proposed to obtain more accurate B1 mapping with short data acquisition time. To evaluate the performance of the proposed B1 mapping method, computational simulations were performed and compared with Morrell’s method, double angle method, and Yarnykh’s method. These results showed that the angle-to-noise ratio of the proposed B1 mapping method has wider B1 range compared to that of other B1 mapping methods. In addition, the proposed B1 mapping methods were compared to the multislice iterative signal intensity mapping method in both phantom and in vivo human experiments, and there was no remarkable difference between the two methods regarding the flip angle distribution in these experiments. Based on these results, this study demonstrated that the proposed B1 mapping method is suitable for accurately measuring B1 propagation under the condition providing reduced scan time and wider 3D coverage of B1 mapping by applying composite RF pulse and SER techniques into the phase-sensitive method.
Dynamics of Pair of Entangled Spin-1/2 Particles and Quantification of the Dynamics in terms of Correlations
The dynamics of an identical pair of entangled spin-1/2 particles, both subjected to the same random magnetic field, are studied. The dynamics of the pure joint state of the pair are derived using stochastic calculus. An ensemble of such pure states is combined using the modified spin joint density matrix, and the joint relaxation time for the pair of spin-1/2 particles is obtained. The dynamics can be interpreted as a special kind of correlation involving the spatial components of the Bloch polarization vectors of the constituent entangled spin-1/2 particles.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Characteristics of Brain Structure and Neuroendocrine Changes in Patients with First-Episode Schizophrenia
This research was aimed to investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of brain structure and neuroendocrine levels in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. 25 hospitalized patients with first-episode schizophrenia were selected as the observation group, while 25 healthy people were selected as the control group. All the objects underwent MRI examination, and the images as well as gray matter density of the original image data were analyzed under voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The cortisol and prolactin in the observation group were detected, and the levels were compared. The Pearson correlation analysis was adopted to analyze the correlation between cortisol and prolactin levels and the total score of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The results showed that the gray matter volume of the precentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, postcentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule, and anterior cingulate cortex of the observation group decreased, while the volume of cerebellar gray matter increased. The levels of cortisol and prolactin in the observation group (387.54 ± 117.69 μg/L and 804.16 ± 267.13 μIU/mL, respectively) were significantly higher than those in the control group (138.46 ± 62.47 μg/L and 397.54 ± 203.82 μIU/mL, respectively), and the differences were statistically significant (). The results of the Pearson correlation test showed that the higher the cortisol level, the more severe the schizophrenia (r = 0.421 and ), while the prolactin level was not directly related to the severity of schizophrenia (r = 0.019 and ). In conclusion, the MRI features based on the VBM technology can accurately assess the changes of gray matter; the levels of cortisol and prolactin in patients with first-episode schizophrenia were significantly higher than those in healthy people; and the higher the cortisol level, the more severe the schizophrenia symptoms. This study provided a certain research basis for MRI features of brain structure and neuroendocrine changes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.
Analysis of Changes in Brain Region and Connectomics in the Acute Stage of Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss in the Resting State via Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging
To explore the functional changes in the whole brain network in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) at the acute stage from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) imaging evaluation results, 80 patients with sudden right SHL were selected as subjects (patient group). In addition, 40 healthy volunteers who underwent physical examination in the hospital during the same period were recruited as a control group. fMRI imaging was performed to analyze functional parameters and core nodes of the whole brain network. It was found that at all thresholds, the fMRI parameters Cp and Lp of the patient group were dramatically superior to those of the control group. The fMRI parameter Eglobal of the patient group was substantially lower than that of the control group (). At most of the thresholds, the fMRI parameter λ in patients was dramatically superior to that in the control group (). There were ten specific network core nodes in patients, including the right parahippocampal gyrus, right supra-occipital gyrus, left suboccipital gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right parietal lobule, right subparietal lobule, right superior temporal gyrus, left superior marginal gyrus, and right superior temporal gyrus. In summary, the whole brains of patients with sudden SHL still had small-world attributes, but some characteristics of the brain network had changed, and there was a trend of transformation to a regular network. The connection between the auditory brain area and the functional areas related to language and vision was weakened, and the distribution of core nodes changed. This study provides a reference basis for exploring the changes in local brain and connectome levels in patients with sudden sensorineural hearing loss in the acute phase based on resting-state fMRI.
Magnetic Resonance Diffusion-Weighted Imaging to Evaluate the Clinical Efficacy of CalliSpheres Drug-Loaded Microspheres in the Treatment of Advanced Bladder Cancer
The MR diffusion-weighted imaging technique was used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of CalliSpheres drug-loaded microspheres for transarterial chemoembolization in the treatment of advanced bladder cancer. 35 patients with advanced bladder cancer were treated with CalliSpheres DLMS for transarterial chemoembolization. Imaging techniques such as magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging were used to evaluate the therapeutic effect. The changes in serum tumor markers, immune function indexes, and oxidative stress indexes in patients before and after treatment were compared, and the quality of life of patients and the incidence of adverse reactions during follow-up were also evaluated. The results showed that the overall response rate (ORR) was 74.29% and that the disease control rate (DCR) was 97.14%. Compared with that before treatment, the ADC value of the tumor in patients with advanced bladder cancer detected by MR diffusion-weighted imaging technology was significantly increased after treatment and the maximum tumor diameter was significantly decreased . Compared with those before treatment, the levels of serum tumor markers (CA199, CA724, and CA125) in advanced bladder cancer patients after treatment decreased . The levels of T-lymphocyte subsets (CD3+ and CD4+) decreased, and CD8+ levels increased . The levels of superoxide dismutase decreased . At the same time, the subscale evaluation of function, symptoms, quality of life, adverse reactions, and economics of patients with advanced bladder cancer on the QLQ-C30 scale improved after treatment, and the incidence rate and recurrence rate during the follow-up period were 8.57% and 11.43%, respectively. It showed that CalliSpheres DLMS had a good clinical effect and high safety in the treatment of advanced bladder cancer and was a safe and feasible treatment method. The use of MR diffusion-weighted imaging technology could achieve quantitative evaluation of clinical efficacy of advanced bladder cancer.