Diagnosis and Management of Polyorchidism: A Case Report and Literature ReviewRead the full article
Case Reports in Urology publishes case reports and case series focusing on the male and female urinary tract and the male reproductive organs.
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First Two Cases of Conservative Treatment for Extreme Proximal Penile Fracture of the Corpora Cavernosa
Penile fracture is a urological emergency, and surgery is usually recommended to prevent complications. However, proximal locations are scarce and not well investigated. We present two rare penile fractures involving the proximal corpora cavernosa with an original conservative strategy to manage this clinical presentation. Twenty-five- and thirty-eight-year-old men with no previous medical history were admitted to the emergency room for penile trauma during sexual intercourse a few months apart. Both presented with “butterfly pattern” ecchymosis with a palpable hematoma on the perineum. They had no hematuria or voiding dysfunction. Ultrasound found a hematoma and a tear of the proximal corpus cavernosum for the younger one. Then, an MRI confirmed a longitudinal fracture of the right corpus cavernosum for the first patient and left for the second, without urethral injury. In agreement with the patients facing this atypical presentation, we proposed a conservative treatment with analgesics, monitoring, and advice to stop sexual activity for three weeks. After six weeks and four weeks, respectively, we performed a clinical evaluation and a second MRI that found no residual tear or hematoma. The IIEF-5 questionnaire was 24/25 and 25/25. The patients were clinically symptom-free at 8 and 11 months of follow-up. Extreme proximal fracture of the corpus cavernosum can be managed conservatively in selected situations. MRI is useful for decision-making by confirming the diagnosis and location to avoid surgery.
Triple Threat: Three Primary Malignancies Simultaneously Involving Three Genitourinary Organs
Statistically, the chance of having concurrent renal cell carcinoma (RCC), urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UC), and a neuroendocrine tumor (NET) of the renal parenchyma is less than one in a trillion. Herein, we describe an unusual case of a 67-year-old female who presented with bilateral flank pain and severe gross hematuria. Cross-sectional imaging revealed two large heterogeneous, endophytic renal masses with a single enlarged paracaval lymph node. Diagnostic cystoscopy was performed for completion of gross hematuria evaluation and revealed a concurrent papillary bladder tumor. Percutaneous biopsies of bilateral renal masses revealed clear cell RCC involving the left kidney and well-differentiated NET involving the right kidney, and transurethral resection of the bladder tumor revealed high-grade nonmuscle invasive urothelial carcinoma. The patient elected to undergo bilateral nephroureterectomy, radical cystectomy, and retroperitoneal and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Final pathology confirmed the presence of three different malignancies: noninvasive high-grade papillary UC of the bladder (pTaN0), left renal clear cell RCC (pT2bN0), right renal well-differentiated NET, and a single paracaval lymph nodes positive for metastatic NET (pT2aN1).
Concurrent Xanthogranulomatous Pyelonephritis and Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma
A 37-year-old male with a history of chronic nephrolithiasis presented to the ED with gross hematuria, clot retention, and right flank pain. The patient had radiological findings of perinephric stranding, marked hydronephrosis, and marked thinning of the right renal parenchyma on computed tomography (CT), all suggestive of xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGP). The specimen following radical nephrectomy revealed urothelial carcinoma (UC) in a background of XGP but with no evidence of spread to regional lymph nodes. Follow-up imaging revealed hypodense lesions in the liver which demonstrated UC on biopsy. This is the first reported case of a young patient presenting with such an advanced stage of UC in the setting of XGP. It illustrates the link between inflammatory processes of the kidney and malignancy of the upper urinary tract.
Drug-Induced Urinary Stone of Atazanavir Incidentally Found in an Asymptomatic Patient: A Case Report
A HIV-infected female treated with a combination of emtricitabine/elvitegravir/tenofovir since 2017 presented an acute renal failure during her hospitalization for a SARS-CoV2 pneumonia. A computed tomography demonstrated left ureterohydronephrosis and ureteral stone. Fragments extracted by ureteroscopy showed a calculus composed of atazanavir and calcium oxalate. The patient’s medical history showed atazanavir intake during ten years and then discontinued in 2017. This case report emphasizes that drug-induced urolithiasis should be considered when renal function declines, even far from discontinuation of atazanavir and without clinical signs of renal colitis. Moreover, identification of risk factors should alert to the possibility of drug-induced nephrolithiasis.
Pelvic Organ Prolapse in Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome
Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a hereditary tissue and collagen synthesis disorder that can predispose patients to gynecologic and obstetric complications. Female patients often suffer from bothersome pelvic floor disorders, but due to the medical complexity of EDS, special considerations are needed for the treatment of pelvic organ prolapse and associated incontinence. In this paper, we present three unique cases of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in EDS patients and delve deeper into the multidisciplinary approach involving urogynecology, rheumatology, physiatry, gastroenterology, and anesthesiology required to appropriately manage this condition.
Solitary Abdominal Wall Lymph Node Recurrence in Prostate Cancer Patient with Dramatic Prostate-Specific Antigen Decrease following Metastasectomy
Prostate cancer patients routinely undergo surveillance for recurrence using prostate-specific antigen (PSA). While PSA’s benefit in screening is controversial, its use for detecting recurrence in patients with history of prostate cancer is pivotal. Rising PSAs with the newly advanced prostate-specific membrane antigen positron emission tomography (PSMA PET) can help localize the location of recurrences for better excision and management. Here, we present a 55-year-old with prostate cancer, with initially undetectable postprostatectomy PSA levels, who later presented with a PSA of 3.47 ng/mL. PSMA PET showed isolated uptake in an abdominal wall mass. Pelvic lymphadenectomy and abdominal wall mass excision were performed, confirming a single metastasis in an abdominal wall lymph node. Metastasectomy led to a dramatic drop in PSA to 0.10 ng/mL both postoperatively and on long-term follow-up. Our case illustrates the potential benefit of metastasis-directed therapy in delayed oligometastasis following definitive management of prostate cancer.