Case Reports in Radiology
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Primary Chest Wall Hydatid Disease: A Case Report with Multimodality Imaging Findings

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Case Reports in Radiology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of radiology.

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Case Report

Bib Sign in Proximal Descending Thoracic Aorta Rupture on CT Angiography: Presentation of a Paradigmatic Case

Thoracic aortic rupture may present with subtle clinical and CT-angiography findings. Recognition of the imaging features of early rupture is key for timely diagnosis and treatment. This report presents a new sign of incipient proximal thoracic aortic rupture on CT-angiography.

Case Report

A Worm’s Tale or Why to Avoid the Raccoon Latrine: A Case of Baylisascaris procyonis Meningoencephalitis

The raccoon roundworm Baylisascaris procyonis (B. procyonis) may infect humans to cause severe or fatal meningoencephalitis, as well as ocular and visceral larva migrans. Young children are at greater risk for cerebral larva migrans with severe meningoencephalitis, and early empiric therapy may improve outcomes. Familiarity with characteristic brain imaging findings may prompt earlier diagnosis, particularly in the setting of CSF eosinophilia. We report a case of a 19-month-old boy who presented with truncal ataxia and was found to have peripheral and CSF eosinophilia. MRI demonstrated symmetric, confluent T2 hyperintense signal in the cerebral and cerebellar deep white mater, which helped differentiate B. procyonis meningoencephalitis from other infectious and non-infectious causes of eosinophilic meningoencephalitis. Early recognition and treatment of B. procyonis meningoencephalitis are important for improved outcomes, and careful review of neuroimaging can play a critical role in suggesting the diagnosis.

Case Report

Adult-Onset Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis with Epstein-Barr Virus Infection

We present the case of a 22-year-old man who was diagnosed with tonsillitis and treated with antibiotics. Although the symptoms subsided, 1 week later, he presented with weakness in the lower limbs and was hospitalized. The weakness in the lower limbs worsened; he developed difficulty speaking and was transferred to our hospital. Laboratory tests showed a white blood cell count of 10,600/μL (24% atypical lymphocytes). Positive results were obtained for immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibody against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) viral capsid antigen. EBV-deoxyribonucleic acid quantification in blood yielded positive results. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hyperintensity in the spinal cord at the Th11 level of the lower spine on T2-weighted imaging (T2WI). In addition, T2WI and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery imaging showed hyperintense lesions on the right cerebral peduncle, bilateral thalami, posterior leg of the left internal capsule, and right corona radiata. We diagnosed acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) with EBV and initiated steroid pulse therapy. Symptoms, along with the lesions seen on MRI, subsequently ameliorated. This case suggests that ADEM can be difficult to diagnose, but careful diagnosis is crucial since appropriate treatment is necessary to improve the symptoms.

Case Report

Massive Facial Presentation of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans

Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a low-grade cutaneous sarcoma typically located on the trunk or proximal extremities. Less common locations include the head, face, and neck area. This tumour is slow growing with variable clinical appearance. It is known for its locally invasive nature and low metastatic propensity. Because imaging findings are rather nonspecific, biopsy is needed for definite diagnosis. This case describes an unusually large example of dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans in the less common preauricular region.

Case Report

Ruptured Median Raphe Cyst Mimicking a Vascular Penile Mass on Ultrasound

Median raphe cysts are uncommon benign cysts thought to occur due to improper fusion of the genital tubercle and can occur anywhere along the median raphe, from the glans to the anus, most commonly occurring along the ventral penile shaft. Limited information is available in the literature about the common imaging features of median raphe cysts with available reports highlighting an avascular cystic lesion. Our case demonstrates a 10-year-old male patient presenting with a ventral penile mass that demonstrated interval growth in the absence of trauma without overlying skin changes. Doppler ultrasound examination demonstrated a solid vascular mass measuring up to 1.6 cm at the ventral aspect of the penis with arterial and venous waveforms. The patient underwent elective resection of the mass which revealed a 2.0 cm inflamed glandular subtype median raphe cyst. This report demonstrates an atypical imaging presentation of an inflamed median raphe cyst, particularly that of a heterogeneous solid mass with arterial and venous blood flow on ultrasound.

Case Report

Dynamic Echocardiographic Imaging of a Valve-in-Valve Mitral Prosthesis

Dynamic imaging of heart valves and specifically prosthetic valves is a central benefit of echocardiography. Most bioprosthetic heart valves degenerate over a given time and hence require repeat valve replacement which carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. Reoperation is the standard of care and may still be required after the first successful surgery due to complications disrupting either mechanical or bioprosthetic valves. Such complications can be delayed or even prevented if optimal prosthesis selection is individualized according to patients’ medical and postimplantation follow-up. We present the case of an 84-year-old woman where an open-heart valve-in-valve approach, implanting a mechanical valve in a failed bioprosthetic valve, produced a unique image on transthoracic echocardiography which needs to be recognized by imagers for appropriate patient diagnosis and management.

Case Reports in Radiology
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Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2021, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.