Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage Associated with Epithelioid Angiosarcoma of the Lung: A Challenging DiagnosisRead the full article
Case Reports in Pulmonology publishes case reports and case series in all areas of pulmonology, prevention, diagnosis and management of pulmonary and associated disorders, as well as related molecular genetics, pathophysiology, and epidemiology.
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The Utility of Bronchoscopy in Hydralazine-Induced ANCA-Associated Vasculitis
Hydralazine is a vasodilator used for the management of hypertension, heart failure, and hypertensive emergencies in pregnancy. It has been implicated in the causation of drug-induced lupus erythematosus (DLE) and rarely with ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), which may present as a pulmonary-renal syndrome and be rapidly fatal. Herein, we describe a case of hydralazine-associated AAV presenting as acute kidney injury with the use of early bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with serial aliquots to aid with diagnosis. Our case highlights how, in the correct clinical setting, BAL can act as a rapid diagnostic test to help guide quicker treatment to allow for better patient outcomes.
Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformation Unmasked by Pregnancy: A Review of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations and Cardiovascular and Respiratory Changes in Pregnancy
Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal, direct communications between the branches of the pulmonary artery and pulmonary veins, but without pulmonary capillaries between them. During pregnancy, PAVMs can enlarge and become symptomatic, causing even serious complications like haematothorax. To recognize the PAVM that becomes symptomatic in pregnancy, one must be able to distinguish the patient’s symptoms caused by developing complications of PAVM, as in the case we present, from physiological changes accompanying a healthy pregnancy, including their degree in relation to the stage of pregnancy. The modified early obstetric warning score charts are a very helpful tool in the assessment of (ab)normal signs and symptoms in pregnant women, especially for physicians who rarely manage pregnant women.
Successful Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019-Related Respiratory Failure Using High-Flow Nasal Cannula Therapy in a Patient with Underlying Pulmonary Artery Hypertension
A case involving a 50-year-old woman (height, 155 cm; weight, 79.6 kg), who was undergoing home oxygen therapy (3.5 L/min), with an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of approximately 91% due to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) with mixed connective tissue disease, is reported. The patient developed coronavirus disease 2019- (COVID-19-) related respiratory failure, with an SpO2 of 78% on oxygen inhalation (3.5 L/min) and was admitted to the authors’ hospital. In accordance with remdesivir, dexamethasone, and heparin treatment, high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected to avoid intubation. At an initial HFNC setting of 70% oxygen with a flow rate of 50 L/min, SpO2 improved to 92% and her subjective symptoms improved. She was weaned from HFNC on day 5 of admission (day 14 of COVID-19 onset) and discharged home on day 14 of admission. In patients with PAH, the beneficial effects of HFNC to avoid endotracheal intubation were evident in avoiding hemodynamic instability and worsening respiratory failure.
Bronchoscopy Laser and Silicone Y-Stents as Emergency Airway Management in Central Airway Stenosis Due to Secondary Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report
Total airway obstruction in thyroid cancer is rare and has high morbidity and mortality. Airway management in such cases is challenging, especially in cases in which thyroid masses cannot be totally resected. It is important to choose the appropriate airway treatment modality. Currently, therapeutic rigid bronchoscopy procedures and endoluminal lasers, as well as airway stent insertion, are a management modality of near-total malignant airway obstruction. We report a rigid bronchoscopy procedure combined with laser and Y-stent silicone insertion in thyroid cancer with extension infiltration, as well as compression in the trachea covering the subglottic tracheal area up to the main carina and tracheo-bronchomalacia, manifesting as acute respiratory failure.
Alveolar Proteinosis in COVID-19: Clinical Case
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare, diffuse lung disease characterized by accumulation of lipoprotein in lung surfactant in the alveolar space and terminal bronchioles, leading to impaired gas exchange and arterial hypoxemia. We present the case of a 51-year-old woman who was admitted with a diagnosis of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Her condition did not improve with corticosteroids. A chest CT scan revealed ground-glass opacities in all lung lobes, with septal thickening. A differential diagnosis was proposed with other diseases. Bronchoscopy revealed milky bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and staining with periodic acid–Schiff was positive, thus indicating PAP. Therefore, the patient underwent whole lung lavage, which led to clinical, radiological, and functional improvement. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, differential diagnosis ensures that appropriate attention is given to less prevalent entities such as PAP.
Calcification in Thoracic Splenosis
Splenosis is a rare condition described as the implantation of ectopic splenic tissue, usually after a splenic rupture. Thoracic splenosis refers to acquired ectopic splenic tissue found within the thoracic cavity, often caused by thoracoabdominal trauma or surgery. Most cases are asymptomatic and many years may elapse before they are incidentally discovered on chest radiography or thoracic computed tomography. Splenosis is often misinterpreted as a malignancy on initial imaging. We wish to highlight a rare case of thoracic splenosis presenting with calcified and non-calcified nodules. Only two other cases of calcification have been reported in intrathoracic splenosis, neither of which provided CT images of this finding.