A Giant Parathyroid Adenoma Presenting as Nausea, Vomiting, and Headaches in an Adolescent MaleRead the full article
Case Reports in Pediatrics publishes case reports and case series related to pediatric subspecialities such as adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care, dentistry, developmental and behavioral medicine, endocrinology, gastroenterology etc.
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Tracheal Resection for Critical Airway Obstruction in Morquio A Syndrome
Introduction. The primary cause of death in Morquio A syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) IVA) is airway obstruction, brought about by an inexorable and pathognomonic multilevel airway tortuosity, buckling, and obstruction. The relative pathophysiological contributions of an inherent cartilage processing defect versus a mismatch in longitudinal growth between the trachea and the thoracic cage are currently a subject of debate. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) and multidisciplinary management continue to improve life expectancy for Morquio A patients by slowing many of the multisystem pathological consequences of the disease but are not as effective at reversing established pathology. An urgent need has developed to consider alternatives to palliation of progressive tracheal obstruction to preserve and maintain these patients’ hard-won good quality of life, as well as to facilitate spinal and other required surgery. Case Report. Following multidisciplinary discussion, transcervical tracheal resection with limited manubriectomy was successfully performed, without the need for cardiopulmonary bypass, in an adolescent male on ERT with the severe airway manifestations of Morquio A syndrome. His trachea was found to be under significant compressive forces at surgery. On histology, chondrocyte lacunae appeared enlarged, but intracellular lysosomal staining and extracellular glycosaminoglycan staining was comparable to control trachea. At 12 months, this has resulted in a significant improvement in respiratory and functional status, with corresponding enhancement to his quality of life. Conclusion. This addressing of tracheal/thoracic cage dimension mismatch represents a novel surgical treatment approach to an existing clinical paradigm and may be useful for other carefully selected individuals with MPS IVA. Further work is needed to better understand the role and optimal timing of tracheal resection within this patient cohort so as to individually balance considerable surgical and anaesthetic risks against the potential symptomatic and life expectancy benefits.
Complicated Acute Pericarditis and Peripheral Venous Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus after Influenza B Virus Infection: A Case Report
Background. In this study, we report the case of a 14-month-old female patient transferred from another hospital to our hospital with a 9-day history of fever and worsening dyspnea. Case Report. The patient tested positive for influenza type B virus 7 days before being transferred to our hospital but was never treated. The physical examination performed at presentation revealed redness and swelling of the skin at the site of the peripheral venous catheter insertion performed at the previous hospital. Her electrocardiogram revealed ST segment elevations in leads II, III, aVF, and V2–V6. An emergent transthoracic echocardiogram revealed pericardial effusion. As ventricular dysfunction due to pericardial effusion was not present, pericardiocentesis was not performed. Furthermore, blood culture revealed methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Thus, a diagnosis of acute pericarditis complicated with sepsis and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infection (PVC-BSI) due to MRSA was made. Frequent bedside ultrasound examinations were performed to evaluate the outcomes of the treatment. After administering vancomycin, aspirin, and colchicine, the patient’s general condition stabilized. Conclusions. In children, it is crucial to identify the causative organism and provide appropriate targeted therapy to prevent worsening of the condition and mortality due to acute pericarditis. Moreover, it is important to carefully monitor the clinical course for the progression of acute pericarditis to cardiac tamponade and evaluate the treatment outcomes.
Kawasaki Disease: Unusual Presentation with Retropharyngeal Involvement
Background. Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile generalized vasculitic syndrome of childhood of unknown ethology. The most severe complication may involve the hearth and include acute myocarditis with hearth failure, arrythmia, and coronary artery aneurism. The typical clinical symptoms are fever, conjunctivitis, rash, cervical lymphadenopathy, and mucocutaneous changes, and the diagnosis is made by the clinical criteria. Early use of aspirin and immunoglobuline improves symptoms and prevent heart complications. Case Presentation. A 4-year-old male presented to our attention for multiple unilateral laterocervical lymphadenopathies, odynophagia, and neck stiffness, initially treated with IV antibiotic therapy with partial resolution of symptoms. After four months he made a new ER access for cervicalgia, tonsils asymmetry, trismus, stiff neck, lameness, and phalanx hyperaemia and increase in the size of cervical lymph nodes. Radiology showed increase of lymphnodes dimension and retropharyngeal space asymmetry. The same day heart murmur appeared, so the patient underwent cardiological evaluation that documented dilation of the coronary arteries. This sign made it possible to place the diagnostic suspicion of Kawasaki disease and to start IV immunoglobulins and acetylsalicylic acid administration with prompt response. Conclusions. Kawasaki disease presents with a range of symptoms which, taken individually, are very common in childhood. One of these symptoms is represented by the swollen of neck lymph nodes. It is only clinical reasoning that leads to the correct diagnosis, and therefore, to the correct setting of the therapy, reducing the risk of complications.
An Unusual Case of a Perforated Meckel’s Diverticulum
Background. Meckel’s diverticulum, the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, typically presents in children with gastrointestinal bleeding. Case Presentation. An 11-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 6 week history of abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea. He was found to have iron deficiency anemia, markedly elevated serum and fecal inflammatory markers, and imaging showing a contained bowel perforation. He was evaluated for infectious etiologies and later underwent extensive testing for inflammatory bowel disease. Ultimately, he was found to have a Meckel’s diverticulum, which was successfully resected and led to resolution of his gastrointestinal complaints. Conclusions. This case report highlights one of the more rare presentations in children, which is intestinal perforation. Symptoms of a Meckel’s diverticulum can overlap with those of inflammatory bowel disease, as demonstrated by our patient. Clinicians should be familiar with criteria to establish diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease, and if diagnosis isn’t fully supported by testing, they should expand the differential and consider Meckel’s diverticulum.
Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Misdiagnosed as IgA Vasculitis in a Child
Background. Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) with early manifestations simulating IgA vasculitis is a very rare childhood systemic disease. Case Presentation. A 10-year-old boy presented initially with cutaneous, skeletal, and abdominal signs suggestive of IgA vasculitis. Over time, the worsening of skin ulcers, orchitis, and renal involvement led to the diagnosis of GPA according to cytoplasmic positive antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and renal biopsy. Conclusion. Clinicians should be awared of the diagnostic pitfalls when making a clinical diagnosis of IgA vasculitis in children older than 7 years.
Intussusception in a 4-Year-Old Male Due to Burkitt Lymphoma
Intussusception is the invagination of a proximal bowel segment into a distal segment causing bowel obstruction, especially in children. In some cases, it can be caused by a pathological lead point, such as Burkitt lymphoma. Burkitt lymphoma has several patterns of clinical presentations, such as jaw or facial bone tumor in the endemic form, in contrast to an abdominal presentation most often with massive disease and ascites. We describe a case of a 4-year-old male who presented bowel obstruction. Using X-ray and ultrasound findings, ileocecal intussusception was then diagnosed. Resection and anastomosis was performed after multiple trials of failed hydrostatic reduction. On the pathology report of the resected segment, Burkitt lymphoma was found to be the cause and chemotherapy was initiated. The patient is doing well and is following up every 6 months for 2 years. A pathological lead point, especially Burkitt lymphoma, should be suspected in patients with failed conservative treatment, and prompt diagnosis of the pathology should be performed to prevent further sequela of the disease.