Rare Pleomorphic Liposarcoma Presented as Jejunal ObstructionRead the full article
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HER2 Negative Mammary Paget’s Disease or In Situ Melanoma? A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Mammary Paget’s disease (MPD) is a rare histological condition, accounting for 1-4% of female breast cancers, which may appear either independently (1.4-13% of the cases), or in association with an in situ or invasive ductal carcinoma (approximately 90% of the cases). The purpose of this article is to highlight the histopathological challenges related to the microscopical polymorphism of this disease and the utmost importance of immunohistochemistry in the thorough process of Paget’s disease differential diagnosis. Moreover, the primary objective of this review of literature was to corroborate the existing data concerning the potential peculiar immunohistochemical profile that mammary Paget’s disease might express. We report the case of a 44-year-old female patient, histopathologically diagnosed with HER2-negative MPD accompanying an invasive mammary carcinoma. The histopathological and immunohistochemical approach is derived from the exigency of excluding the possibility of synchronous tumors—a mammary invasive carcinoma, accompanied by another component with MPD phenotypic mimicry. The unexpected negative HER2 reaction is conducted to a primary focus on excluding a malignant melanoma in situ. The absence of MelanA and S100 immunoexpression and lack of pigmentation and clinical aspects infirmed it. Bowen’s disease was invalidated by its rare presentation in the breast cutaneous tissue and the absence of individual risk factors suggestive of an existing immunosuppressive status. In the case of similar morphoimmunohistochemical aspects, significant expression of Ki-67 signals MPD, an immunoreactivity that helped distinguish the cellular population from Toker cells. The great similarity of MPD with other benign and malignant cutaneous tumors might determine delay or misdiagnosis. Thus, the utmost importance of immunohistochemistry is reflected in its prognostic significance and geared towards extending the therapeutic arsenal.
A Rare Case of Ruptured Tailgut Cyst Leading to Carcinomatosis
Tailgut cysts are congenital cysts arising in the retrorectal space. They are thought to be benign with variable malignancy risks. We report a case with previous surgical intervention decades prior that had undergone a tailgut cyst excision with surgical complications leading to carcinomatosis. An elderly female (70s) presented with tailbone/pelvic pain. She underwent cyst excision that was complicated by an intraoperative rupture. The cyst was pathologically proven to be a tailgut cyst with adenocarcinoma. She presented 13 months postoperatively to the emergency department with worsening abdominal pain. Imaging was concerning for diffuse omental nodules and narrowing of the proximal sigmoid colon. She was not deemed to be a surgical candidate and was transitioned to hospice care, where she passed away shortly afterward. This case report highlights the utility of complete excision of tailgut cysts and possible complications.
Coronary Stent Abscess in the Setting of Arteriovenous Graft Infection following COVID-19: An Autopsy Case Report
While rare, coronary stent infections present with significant mortality—with most infections and further complications occurring within months of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Here, we discuss a post-COVID-19 patient who presented approximately one year after PCI for declotting of an arteriovenous graft (AVG). Upon admission, the patient was found to be bacteremic with multilobar pneumonia and an infection of the AVG. Empiric antibiotics were started, and blood cultures were subsequently positive for MRSA. Removal of the AVG was unsuccessful, and two days after admission, the patient passed. Autopsy revealed a perivascular abscess in the RCA near the origin of the stent with a ground section of the RCA with stent revealing abundant calcific atherosclerosis and marked necrosis of the artery wall. The cause of death was determined to be sepsis complicating coronary artery disease and chronic renal failure.
Jejunal Intussusception Secondary to a Large Inflammatory Fibroid Polyp: A Case Report and Discussion of Differential Diagnosis
Inflammatory fibroid polyp (IFP), initially considered a reactive process, is now recognized as a benign mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with medically refractory Crohn disease that presented with intussusception requiring surgical intervention. The resection revealed a jejunal mass consisting of a submucosal proliferation of bland spindle cells in a fibrous stroma infiltrated by numerous eosinophils. By immunohistochemistry, the lesion was positive for vimentin and negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), S-100, CD117, DOG1, ALK (D5F3), Melan-A, HMB-45, CD34, and STAT6. Ki-67 proliferative index was low (<1%). The mass was classified as IFP by its characteristic morphology and associated eosinophilia. IFP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of adults with intussusception or bowel obstruction. Definitive treatment typically requires surgical resection of the involved bowel segment.
A Case of GATA3 Positive Pleomorphic Liposarcoma, Epithelioid Variant: A Diagnostic Pitfall
Pleomorphic liposarcoma is a rare malignant adipocytic tumor showing undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma morphology with various degrees of epithelioid features. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish from carcinoma metastasis. Immunohistochemical panel is very important for differential diagnosis; however, there is a risk that unexpected staining could lead to misinterpretation. We report a pleomorphic liposarcoma, epithelioid variant, in an 88-year-old man, with tricky-positive staining for GATA3. Histological examination revealed a tumor with epithelioid morphology. The tumor consists of solid sheets of epithelioid tumor cells with focal aggregates of pleomorphic lipoblasts. Immunohistochemically, the adipocytic tumor cell areas were positive for S100 protein, and the epithelioid tumor cells showed CAM 5.2 positivity. GATA3 was diffusely positive. The combination of CAM 5.2 and GATA3 staining suggested the possibility of metastatic cancer, but systemic clinical examinations did not detect any presence of a primary tumor, including urinary bladder, breasts, and salivary glands. The pathological diagnosis of pleomorphic liposarcoma, epithelioid variant, was made because of the presence of malignant lipoblasts. Our report may contribute for differential diagnosis of pleomorphic liposarcoma, epithelioid variant, with unexpected positive immunoreaction for GATA3.
A PAX-8-Positive Female Urethral Adenocarcinoma, Intestinal-Type: A Case Report with Diagnostic Challenges and a Review of the Literature
Female urethral adenocarcinoma (FUA) is extremely rare. It is an aggressive malignancy, and clear cell and columnar/mucinous (“intestinal”) represent the two primary histologic subtypes. Diagnosis is often delayed in patients because of their vague symptomatology; hence, they present with an advanced disease and a poor prognosis. The rarity of FUA brings challenges when determining treatment and management, and treatment guidelines for various stages are lacking. We report an intestinal-type FUA that developed from inflammation-related metaplasia in urethral diverticulum with positive paired box 8 (PAX-8) staining. In addition to intestinal-type FUA being extremely rare, this particular entity exhibiting PAX-8 positivity has not been previously described, to the author’s best knowledge. The present report highlights the importance of clinical and radiological assessment as well as histomorphologic and immunophenotypic features for an accurate diagnosis of this rare and aggressive malignancy.