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Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine publishes case reports and case series related to the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye.
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Gonioscopy-Assisted Transluminal Trabeculotomy following Failed Glaucoma Surgery in Primary Congenital Glaucoma: One-Year Results
Purpose. To evaluate the one-year outcomes of gonioscopy-assisted transluminal trabeculotomy (GATT) in primary congenital glaucoma (PCG) with a history of prior glaucoma surgery. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify all PCG years who underwent GATT surgery at Cairo University Children’s Hospital from January 2016 to March 2022. Pre- and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and glaucoma medications were collected at 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and last follow-up visits. Success was defined as mmHg without (complete) or with (qualified) glaucoma medications at the last follow-up. Results. Seven eyes of 6 subjects were included in the study. The mean IOP was statistically significantly reduced from mmHg preoperatively to a mean IOP of mmHg () at 12 months and mmHg () at the last follow-up visit. Six eyes (85.7%) achieved complete success, and one eye (14.2%) achieved qualified success. No patients required further glaucoma procedures. No serious intra- or postoperative complications were identified. Conclusions. Our early experience highlights that GATT can be performed as an alternative procedure before considering conjunctival or scleral glaucoma surgeries.
An Unnamed Human Oral Bergeyella sp. as the Cause of an Unusual Bacterial Keratitis
Purpose. We report a case of bacterial keratitis secondary to an undescribed Bergeyella sp. Bergeyella spp. are not easily cultured, and many reports have identified unculturable isolates through broad-range bacterial polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Observations. A healthy 29-year-old male was attempting to repair an acrylic cannabis water pipe when it shattered and a fragment hit him in the left eye. Two weeks later, he presented with foreign body sensation, scleral injection, and photophobia that were refractory to prolonged corticosteroid therapy. Following a subconjunctival triamcinolone injection, the patient developed a hypopyon and multifocal, midstromal, epithelized corneal infiltrates. Broad-range PCR of the aqueous fluid detected deoxyribonucleic acid closely matching the Bergeyella genus. Empiric treatment directed toward gram-negative bacteria led to the clinical resolution of the inflammation. Conclusions and Importance. This is the first reported case of ocular inflammation secondary to a Bergeyella spp.. As broad-range PCR testing becomes more accessible, we anticipate that additional PCR-positive and culture-negative scenarios will occur.
Intrastromal Corneal Ring Segment Implantation in a Patient with the Bowman Layer Inlay Transplantation for Keratoconus
Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral ectatic corneal disease which results in changes in the corneal architecture and can lead to severe visual impairment. Treatment options depend on the stage of the disease, and they aim either at improving vision or arrest progression. The Bowman layer transplantation (BLT) is a recent surgical option in patients with KC and may postpone corneal transplantation in some patients. We present a case of a 22-year-old patient with a 10-year follow-up history of progressing KC. A first attempt for an intracorneal ring segment (ICRS) implantation when he was 13 years old was unsuccessful due to a superficially implanted segment. At that time, collagen cross-linking was unavailable, and his young age raised concerns about performing a penetrating keratoplasty/lamellar keratoplasty. A BLT was performed with further ICRS implantation with relative disease stability and visual improvement. ICRS implantation in KC patients with BLT has not previously been described in literature and can be an option in selected patients.
Central Retinal Artery Occlusion with Concomitant Intracranial Hemorrhage Secondary to Streptococcus Gordonii Endocarditis
Purpose. To report a case of central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) associated with subacute Streptococcus gordonii endocarditis secondary to a dental infection. Observations. A 27-year-old male presented with acute monocular vision loss in the setting of a stroke and seizure. A fundus exam revealed macular whitening and a cherry-red spot. Edema of the inner retinal layers was confirmed on macular optical coherence tomography, consistent with CRAO. Initial imaging (carotid Doppler, EKG, and transthoracic echocardiography) and a comprehensive laboratory workup did not reveal an etiology for the stroke or vision loss. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed T1 hyperintensity with surrounding edema, which prompted a workup for possible septic emboli versus occult malignancy. Subsequent blood cultures led to the detection and diagnosis of Streptococcus gordonii endocarditis. It was subsequently revealed that the patient had self-extracted his molar two months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions. Endocarditis has been associated with Roth spots and inflammatory findings in the posterior segment. However, CRAO caused by vegetal septic embolism is rare. To our knowledge, this represents the first reported case of endocarditic CRAO with Streptococcus gordonii confirmed as the causative microbe. Retinal vascular occlusion in a young patient with no distinct risk factors should prompt a comprehensive dental history and infectious workup, with consideration given to early transesophageal echocardiography.
Postoperative Endophthalmitis after Combined Cataract Extraction and iStent Inject Implantation
Purpose. To report a case of postoperative endophthalmitis after combined cataract extraction and iStent inject implantation. Observation. A 70-year-old male with a nuclear sclerotic cataract and primary open-angle glaucoma underwent an uneventful phacoemulsification cataract extraction with implantation of an intraocular lens and an iStent inject trabecular bypass stent. The patient was prescribed a postoperative regimen of ofloxacin 0.3% and prednisolone acetate 1%, 1 drop four times a day each. On postoperative day five, he presented to the emergency room for eye pain and had 4+ mixed cells in the anterior chamber (AC) without hypopyon or vitritis on exam. Prednisolone 1% eye drops were increased from four times a day to every two hours while awake. Overnight, he developed worsening vision and severe eye pain. The next morning, he was found to have increased AC cells, vitritis, and intraretinal hemorrhages and was diagnosed with endophthalmitis. The patient underwent a vitreous tap and intravitreal injections of vancomycin (1 mg/0.1 mL) and amikacin (0.4 mg/0.1 mL). Cultures grew Staphylococcus epidermidis. Lab work-up revealed underlying neutropenia. Visual acuity eventually recovered to 20/20. Conclusion and Importance. This report highlights a case of endophthalmitis associated with placement of the iStent inject. The infection was well-controlled after administration of intravitreal antibiotics without removal of the iStent inject, and visual acuity eventually recovered to 20/20. Surgeons should be aware of endophthalmitis risk following combined iStent inject placement, and good recovery is possible without removal of the implant.
Bilateral Lipid Keratopathy in the Setting of Brimonidine Tartrate Use
Lipid keratopathy (LK) is a rare disease involving lipid deposition in the cornea resulting in corneal opacification. Primary LK can arise sporadically while secondary LK is seen in patients with a history of ocular trauma, medication exposure, infection, inflammation, or disorders resulting in derangements of lipid metabolism. Secondary LK is more common and occurs due to neovascularization. Use of precipitating medications should be considered in LK workup, particularly for patients in whom other etiologies have been ruled out. Brimonidine, an ocular hypotensive medication, can be associated with LK. We present a case of bilateral secondary LK in a patient with a history of prolonged brimonidine use, without additional contributing factors.