Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology has recently been accepted in Scopus.Go to Table of Contents
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology publishes case reports and case series related to obstetrics, maternal-fetal medicine, gynecology, gynecologic oncology, uro-gynecology, reproductive medicine, infertility, and reproductive endocrinology.
Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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Recurrent Hydatidiform Moles: A Clinical Challenge—A Case Report and an Update on Management and Therapeutical Strategies
Hydatidiform mole, complete or partial (CHM/PHM), is the most common type of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), which is characterized by excessive trophoblastic proliferation and abnormal embryonic development. Some patients present with sporadic or familiar recurrent hydatidiform moles (RHMs), which are characterized by two or more episodes of the disease. A healthy 36-year-old woman was admitted to the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit of Santa Maria Goretti Hospital, Latina, because of RHMs at 6 weeks of amenorrhea, with an obstetrical anamnesis of RHMs. We performed uterine dilatation and curettage with suction evacuation. The histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of PHM. The clinical follow-up was conducted according to recent guidelines on the diagnosis and management of GTD. After the return to the baseline values of the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin hormone, a combined oral contraceptive therapy was proposed, and the patient was invited to undergo in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques, specifically oocyte donation, to reduce the possibility of similar future cases of RHMs. Although some etiopathogenetic mechanisms involved in RHMs are still unknown, all patients of childbearing age who are affected by this syndrome should be properly treated and directed towards a correct clinical path as IVF, to have a successful and safe pregnancy.
Bilateral Ovarian Serous Borderline Tumor with Non-Invasive Endometrial Implants
Herein, we are presenting a case of a 33-year-old woman who presented to the emergency department complaining of persistent lower abdominal pain of one-day duration. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness with right lower quadrant rebound tenderness. Computed tomography abdomen/pelvis showed a 6 cm possible necrotic mass of the left ovary with moderate amount of complex ascites. A laparoscopic left oophorectomy with bilateral salpingectomy, right ovarian biopsy, and appendectomy were performed without complications. The cut surface of the left ovary showed a ovarian mass, and the cut surface revealed multiple gray-tan friable papillary excrescence. Microscopic evaluation showed findings consistent with left and right ovarian serous borderline tumor (SBT). Subsequently, a tumor staging was conducted with total laparoscopic hysterectomy, pelvic and periaortic lymph node dissection, and omentectomy. The endometrium sections showed several small foci of SBT within the endometrial stroma, consistent with non-invasive implants of the endometrium. The omentum and lymph nodes were all negative for malignancy. SBTs associated with endometrial implants are very rare with only one case reported in the literature. Their existence can cause diagnostic challenges, and they should be acknowledged for early diagnosis and to plan for patient’s treatment and outcome.
Heterotopic Pregnancy: Case Series and Review of Diagnosis and Management
Introduction. Heterotopic pregnancy (HP) refers to the simultaneous presence of intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) and ectopic pregnancy, which is very rare but potentially life-threatening. The spontaneous incidence of HP in the general population is 1/30,000. With the widespread use of assisted reproductive technology (ART), the incidence rises to 1/1,000. Aims and Methods. This is a prospective case series looking at the cases of heterotopic pregnancies presenting to the early pregnancy unit (EPU) in a tertiary maternity hospital, from November 2015 to November 2016. The clinical presentation, ultrasound findings, and laparoscopy findings were all documented. The incidence of HP was calculated and compared with the quoted incidence in the literature. Outcomes. Five women with HP presented to the EPU over the course of a year. The first case describes a spontaneous HP with a previous salpingostomy. The second case describes an HP following ovulation induction. The third case describes a spontaneous HP with no known risk factors. The fourth and fifth cases describe heterotopic pregnancies following in vitro fertilisation with more than one embryo. All five cases of HP underwent laparoscopy and salpingectomy with uneventful recovery. The three women who had a viable IUP had no further complications in their pregnancies. Conclusion. Early and accurate diagnosis of HP can be challenging. An early transvaginal ultrasound plays an important role in making the diagnosis in women with risk factors and following ART. A high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis and appropriate intervention, especially in spontaneous HP.
Cervical Ripening Balloon in Combination with Methotrexate and Potassium Chloride for the Treatment of a 13-week Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy
Background. Cervical pregnancy, an uncommon type of ectopic pregnancy, can lead to devastating consequences if not diagnosed and treated early. Despite this, there are no specific guidelines on how to treat such pregnancies especially in advanced gestational ages (GAs). Case. This is a 35-year-old patient who presented to our hospital at 13 weeks GA after failing systemic multidose methotrexate therapy for a cervical ectopic pregnancy. Given desire to preserve fertility, a minimally invasive conservative approach was taken involving potassium chloride (KCl) and methotrexate injections into the gestational sac, followed by immediate Cook intracervical double balloon placement under direct ultrasound visualization, with removal of the balloon after 72 hours, and ultimately resolution of the pregnancy 12 weeks after the removal. Conclusion. Advanced first trimester cervical ectopic pregnancy after failure of methotrexate therapy was managed successfully with minimally invasive KCl and methotrexate injections in combination with cervical ripening balloon.
Cesarean Scar Pregnancy and Successful Ultrasound-Guided Removal after Uterine Artery Ligation
A correct management of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) is mandatory to avoid further complications. There is no consensus for the standard therapy and the most frequent methods used are not free from failures and sequelae. A 38-year-old woman was admitted referring amenorrhea lasting 9 weeks, pelvic pain, and vaginal bleeding. She had three previous cesarean sections. Transvaginal ultrasound showed a gestational sac of 16 mm in the cervico-isthmic site and inside the thickness of the uterine wall, and the dosage of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin was 12,770 mU/mL. A diagnosis of CSP was done, and an ultrasound-guided removal after uterine artery cervical branch ligation was performed. The follow-up was uneventful. Even if not yet codified in the literature, our therapeutic procedure should be considered in other similar cases in the future, as it potentially limits the possible iatrogenic problems and reduces intraoperative and postoperative bleeding to a minimum.
A Case Series on Pregnant Patients with Mild Covid-19 Infection and Signs of Severe Placental Insufficiency
In this case series, we present five cases of pregnant women who sought medical attention for reduced fetal movements with an ongoing mild maternal Covid-19 infection at a Stockholm hospital in Spring of 2021. At the time of admission, the patients were in gestational week between and . Abdominal ultrasound at the hospital showed no fetal movements, and cardiotocography (CTG) was pathological. All women delivered via cesarean section within 24 hours after admission. Placental pathology in all cases showed massive perivillous fibrin deposition and extensive histiocytic intervillositis. All placentas were Covid-19 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive. The infants were Covid-19 PCR negative. Consistent with other published case reports, we hypothesize that Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can affect the placenta resulting in massive perivillous fibrin deposition and histiocytic intervillositis leading to acute placental insufficiency and fetal hypoxia. The absence of intrauterine growth restriction also augments the theory of an acute onset of placental insufficiency due to the Covid-19 infection.