Disseminated Peritoneal Tuberculosis Initially Misdiagnosed as Nephrogenic AscitesRead the full article
Case Reports in Nephrology publishes case reports and case series focusing on the prevention, diagnosis, and management of kidney diseases and associated disorders, including cancer. The journal also focuses on advances in transplantation techniques.
Case Reports in Nephrology maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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ANCA-Associated Vasculitis after Moderna COVID-19 Vaccination
We experienced a case of myeloperoxidase antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (MPO-ANCA)-associated vasculitis after Moderna COVID-19 vaccination. An 82-year-old woman developed pyrexia and general malaise one month after her third booster vaccine, and the symptoms persisted. Blood testing revealed inflammation, a high level of MPO-ANCA, and microscopic hematuria. MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis was diagnosed by renal biopsy. The symptoms improved with steroid therapy. Common adverse reactions to mRNA vaccines against COVID-19 include pyrexia and general malaise, but MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis can also occur. If pyrexia, prolonged general malaise, urinary occult blood, or renal impairment is observed, the onset of MPO-ANCA-associated vasculitis should be considered.
Antitubular Basement Membrane Antibody Disease Associated with Nivolumab Infusion and Concomitant Acute Pyelonephritis Leading to Acute Kidney Injury : a Case Report and Literature Review
Antitubular basement membrane (anti-TBM) antibody disease is an extremely rare disorder. It may be idiopathic or secondary to exposure of the proximal tubular basement membrane, triggered by tubular injury due to acute pyelonephritis, acute allergic interstitial nephritis, or kidney allograft rejection. The histopathology of anti-TBM antibody disease is characterized by strong linear deposits of IgG with complement C3 along the proximal tubular cell basement membranes. The staining is restricted to proximal tubules. Currently, a kidney biopsy with these pathognomonic findings is the only diagnostic method. Serological testing and titers for anti-TBM antibodies are not clinically standardized. Our patient had pyelonephritis and possibly acute allergic interstitial nephritis as a result of nivolumab infusion. The kidney biopsy demonstrated dense interstitial infiltrates of neutrophil-rich interstitial inflammation, neutrophilic casts, and neutrophilic tubulitis consistent with acute pyelonephritis, as well as areas of mixed inflammation with lymphocytic tubulitis suggesting concurrent acute interstitial nephritis. The presence of linear IgG staining along proximal but not distal tubular basement membranes was diagnostic of anti-TBM antibody disease, favored to be due to both triggers. The patient was treated with discontinuation of nivolumab, intravenous antibiotics, and corticosteroids and was supported with hemodialysis. After 6 weeks, the patient’s kidney function recovered enough to discontinue hemodialysis and had significant renal improvement.
A Case of Castleman’s Disease during the Long-Term Course of Membranous Nephropathy
Concomitant with nephrotic syndrome and multicentric castleman’s disease (MCD) has only been described in a limited number of small studies and case reports. Among those, none confirmed the renal pathology prior to the onset of MCD, and none of the cases had a history of nephrotic syndrome. A 76 year-old Japanese man visited a nephrologist because of incident nephrotic syndrome. He had previously experienced three episodes of nephrotic syndrome, the last one 13 years ago, and had been diagnosed with membranous nephropathy by renal biopsy. Apart from these previous episodes, he also suffered from systemic lymphadenopathy, anemia, elevated C-reactive protein, polyclonal hypergammopathy, and elevated interleukin (IL)-6. An inguinal lymph node biopsy revealed CD138-positive plasma cells in the interfollicular region. Based on these findings, MCD was diagnosed. Renal biopsy indicated primary membranous nephropathy with spike lesions and bubbling in the basement membranes and deposition of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgA, IgM, and phospholipase A2 receptor along the glomerular basement membrane. Corticosteroid monotherapy successfully reduced the edema, proteinuria, and IL-6, but hypoalbuminemia was not sufficiently improved due to castleman’s disease and remission of the nephrotic syndrome was not achieved. Later, tocilizumab was administered for remission induction in another facility. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first report of Castleman’s disease with previously diagnosed membranous nephropathy. This case does not provide a causal mechanism for the pathophysiology, but it may be worth suggesting possible involvement of MCD as a trigger for recurrence of membranous nephropathy.
Epitope Spreading: The Underlying Mechanism for Combined Membranous Lupus Nephritis and Anti-GBM Disease?
Membranous lupus nephritis associated with anti-GBM antibodies is a rare entity, particularly in lupus nephritis patients who are serologically negative for ANA and anti-dsDNA with normal complement levels. We present an unusual case of a patient initially diagnosed with anti-GBM disease whose repeat biopsy demonstrated combined focal proliferative and membranous lupus nephritis (III + V). The first biopsy showed a granular linear pattern, and the second biopsy had multiple electron dense deposits in the subendothelial, epithelial, and mesangial regions along with podocyte effacement. Experimental research suggests that the sequential histopathological transition observed may reflect the action of immunological rearrangement and epitope spreading.
Pembrolizumab Induced Calcitriol-Mediated Hypercalcemia
PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors such as pembrolizumab have radically improved the prognosis for many patients with advanced malignancies. Although revolutionary, its use can be complicated and limited by various immune-related adverse effects. Effective management depends on early recognition and prompt intervention. Herein, we describe a unique syndrome of hypercalcemia, with associated acute renal injury and hypoxic respiratory failure that was responsive to corticosteroids suggestive of immunotoxicity from pembrolizumab.
Simultaneous Pancreas-Kidney Transplant Complicated by Kidney Allograft Torsion and Pseudoaneurysms of the Y-Allograft: A Case Report and Review of the Literature
Background. We report and review the literature of two rare complications of simultaneous pancreas-kidney transplantation (SPKT) occurring in one patient. Case Report. A 39-year-old man with dialysis-dependent kidney failure secondary to type 1 diabetes mellitus underwent successful SPKT in October 2018. Three months later, he presented with an acute kidney injury (AKI) and returned to dialysis. Kidney scintigraphy showed a central photopenic region, and angiograms showed absent flow in the kidney transplant artery without treatable thrombus and the incidental finding of two pseudoaneurysms of the pancreatic Y-graft. He remained dialysis-dependent for three weeks before spontaneous partial recovery of allograft function; repeat kidney scintigraphy showed significant improvement in perfusion. However, in April 2019 he was readmitted with a sudden deterioration in kidney allograft function again necessitating haemodialysis. Repeat imaging confirmed that the kidney allograft had shifted from the left iliac fossa to the midline. He underwent surgical exploration, during which torsion of the kidney allograft was confirmed and a nephropexy was performed. The kidney allograft was originally implanted in the left retroperitoneum via a midline transperitoneal approach, which likely predisposed it to torsion. The pseudoaneurysms of the pancreatic Y-graft were managed conservatively, and surveillance imaging demonstrated that they remained stable in size. The patient regained reasonable kidney allograft function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, eGFR, of 45 mL/min) and maintained normal pancreatic allograft function. Conclusion. Kidney allograft torsion should be considered post-SPKT in patients with AKI and absent arterial flow. Although most case reports describe surgical management of pseudoaneurysms post-SPKT, our case demonstrates successful conservative management.